International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health <p>The <strong>International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health (IJCMPH)</strong> is an open access, international, monthly, peer-reviewed journal publishes articles of authors from India and abroad with special emphasis on original research findings that are relevant for developing country perspectives including India.</p> <p>The journal publishes original research articles, focusing on family health care, epidemiology, biostatistics, public health administration, health care delivery, national health problems, medical anthropology and social medicine, invited annotations and comments, invited papers on recent advances, clinical and epidemiological diagnosis and management review article, short communication/brief reports, letters to the editor, case reports, etc. The journal covers population based studies, impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation, systematic review, meta-analysis, clinic-social studies etc., related to any domain and discipline of public health, especially relevant to national priorities, including ethical and social issues. Articles aligned with national health issues and policy implications are preferred. It is published <strong>monthly</strong> and available in print and online version. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health (IJCMPH) complies with the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, issued by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors.</p> <p><strong>Issues: 12 per year</strong></p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong>Print ISSN:</strong> 2394-6032</p> <p><strong>Online ISSN:</strong> 2394-6040</p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Medip Academy</strong></a></p> <p><strong>DOI prefix:</strong> 10.18203</p> <p>Medip Academy is a member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), which operates <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef (DOI)</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Manuscript Submission</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health accepts manuscript submissions through <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submissions</a>:</p> <p>Registration and login are required to submit manuscripts online and to check the status of current submissions.</p> <ul> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Registration</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Login</a></li> </ul> <p>If you find any difficulty in online submission of your manuscript, please contact editor at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abbreviation</strong></p> <p>The correct abbreviation for abstracting and indexing purposes is Int J Community Med Public Health.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing information</strong></p> <p>The International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health is indexed with</p> <ul> <li><a title="PubMed and PubMed Central (PMC)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PubMed and PubMed Central (PMC)</a> (NLM ID: 101711371, Selected citations only)</li> <li><a title="Scilit (MDPI)" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scilit (MDPI)</a></li> <li><a href=";journalId=31416" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus</a> </li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region (WHO)</a></li> <li><a href=";journalID=32537" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JournalTOCs</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ScopeMed</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Index</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">J-Gate</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Directory of Science</a></li> <li><a href=";issn=23946032&amp;uid=r5af96" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a></li> <li><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICMJE</a></li> <li><a href=";fIDnum=|&amp;mode=simple&amp;letter=ALL&amp;la=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SHERPA/RoMEO</a></li> </ul> Medip Academy en-US International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2394-6032 Alleviating the impact of the geohelminthiases in the COVID-19 crisis <p>Alleviating geohelminthiases impact during 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is complicated. Various efforts have been made to reduce them. Chemoprevention such as annual or biennial mass preventive drugs (MPD) with albendazole or mebendazole as a single dose for at-risk populations, including preschool children, school-age children, adolescent girls, childbearing age women, and pregnant women, is the form of short-term action. Long-term actions are providing clean water, improving sanitation and toilets, banning on the usage of stool as fertilizer, and counseling on a clean and healthy lifestyle (CHL) accompanied by implementing community based total sanitation (CBTS). The challenges of them are inconstancy in observing the programs, chemoprevention coverage growth in at-risk groups, drug resistance manifestation, and weak diagnostic methods.</p> Pilar Menara Falah Yudha Nurdian Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1285 1286 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230653 Occupational stress among armed forces and police personnel: a review <p>In today’s world, stress is a word which is hard to avoid. If someone asks people about their stress and specifically how they know it exists- two general types were described. First, there are experiences of mental distress, - often accompanied by feelings of not being able to cope, that things are falling apart, that the person is not in control of themselves and their situation or is just a general case that without specific reasons that all is not well. Secondly, the physiological manifestations of less appetite, sleeplessness, sweating, ulcers and physical illness of various degrees. Different people have different views about it from various, sources. Occupational stress can be explained as the physiological and emotional responses that originate when personnels feel an imbalance between their work demands and their capability and response to meet these demands. Purpose of this paper is to provide a general review on “occupational stress among armed forces and police personnel of India” with the help of available literature. The home ministry commissioned conducted a study to look into the reasons for premature retirements of paramilitary forces. The findings of the study revealed that lack of sleep, manpower crunch, no leaves and lack of motivation were some of the reasons responsible for people quitting the jobs. However, to the best of my knowledge, no specific research study has been carried-out in India till date to assess the rate and reason of suicides among armed forces and even the home ministry’s official statement revealed that, in most of the cases of suicides, the reasons are more personnel than work related.</p> Manushi Srivastava Gunjan Singh Poonam Singh Kharwar Shweta Jaiswal Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 10 3 1280 1284 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230301 Analysis of community acceptability to COVID-19 vaccination in coastal communities of North Minahasa Regency <p><strong>Background</strong>: One of the important keys in dealing with COVID-19 is vaccination which can provide immunity to the community. The availability of an effective and safe vaccine certainly does not fully guarantee that the vaccination program will run well and give maximum results. In addition to vaccine distribution management which is quite complicated and must be done very carefully, the community's acceptability factor must be handled properly and carefully. The achievement of COVID-19 vaccination based on PCare Data from Wori health center and Tinongko health center as of January 8, 2022 was 61%. This illustrates that there are still many people who have not been vaccinated. The purpose of the study was to analyze the community's acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccination program in Wori District.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The type of research to be carried out is quantitative research with an analytical observational design using a cross-sectional study approach. The research location is in 13 villages in Wori District. The research population is people who are in the administrative area of Wori District. Sampling was done by cluster sampling method using sample calculations obtained 376 respondents.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that there was a significant association between education level, employment status, and knowledge with community acceptability to COVID-19 vaccination.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: It is necessary to find an effective way to reach people with the most limited access to information in order to increase public acceptance of the vaccination program.</p> Grace D. Kandou Budi T. Ratag Angela F. C. Kalesaran Priscilla C. Kandou Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-09 2023-02-09 10 3 901 905 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230332 Pediatric tuberculosis under six years old: an 18-year experience of a level II hospital <p><strong>Background:</strong> Tuberculosis disease under six years is an indicator of recent transmission within the community. We aim to characterize tuberculosis disease in children under six years in a pediatric department of a level II hospital in the Lisbon metropolitan area, which serves a high percentage of immigrants from Portuguese-speaking African countries.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Retrospective and descriptive study of tuberculosis disease cases treated in our Department between January 2004 and December 2021 (18 years). Descriptive analysis of the collected data was performed using SPSS Statistics® 25.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 25 patients were included, 60% diagnosed between 2016 and 2021. Five patients were born in countries with high TB incidence and 11 other patients had immigrant families from such countries. Ten out of 13 patients not immunized with BCG had the recommendation to do so. A close contact with tuberculosis was known in 15 patients, and in seven of those the system for TB prevention failed. At diagnosis: 4/25 patients had disseminated tuberculosis (three miliary and one congenital).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The increase in tuberculosis disease cases under six years in the last three years points to some pitfalls in tuberculosis surveillance and transmission prevention. New studies and institutional protocols are needed to improve the effectiveness of the network involved in TB prevention and treatment.</p> Joana Gomes Vieira Andreia Fiúza Ribeiro Paula Correia Helena Loureiro Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-09 2023-02-09 10 3 906 912 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230330 A descriptive analysis of the relationship between place of birth and type of birth attendant with breastfeeding feeding practices among children in Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> According to the World Health Organization (WHO), all infants should be breastfed immediately after birth, exclusively for 6 months, and for a minimum of two years thereafter. This study determined the relationship between place of birth and type birth attendant with breastfeeding practices in Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Data from 21,773 households participating in the 2015/2016 Kenya integrated household budget survey (KIHBS) were analysed. Respondents provided information on duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding practices as well as place of birth, and the type of birth attendant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 99.4% of the children 0-59 months had been breastfed with about 62.8 % exclusively breastfed for 6 months. 54% of the children were born in a hospital or health care center. 49% of all the births were attended by a nurse/midwife and 27% by traditional birth attendants (TBA). Those born at home were less likely to EB (Z<sup>2</sup>=24.6; p&lt;0.001) than those born in the hospital. Those whose birth was attended by a TBA were less likely to EB for 6 months (Z<sup>2</sup>=28.6, p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> These findings suggest that interventions could focus on identifying factors that hinder women from giving birth in hospitals or health care facilities which are able to provide resources on infant feeding practices.</p> Teresia Mbogori James Muriuki Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 913 918 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230600 Family history of diabetes, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular diseases in relation to self health-care <p><strong>Background:</strong> To assess the prevalence of family history of DM, HT, CVD, and obesity and determine the methods of self-health care among participants with and without a FH of these disease(s). Self-testing methods such as screening for chronic metabolic diseases and lifestyle modifications were focused on.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study including 1000 participants above 18 years of age and a self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data. The association was assessed using the Chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to determine the degree of association. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. An informed consent was taken from all participants and ethics approval obtained from International Review of Boards Committee.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results showed 44.8% with a FH of DM, 49.1% with hypertension, 21.9% with CVD and 17.3% with obesity. The OR showed that the likelihood of testing for FBG (OR=5, p&lt;0.001 those with four FH compared to no FH), Cholesterol (OR=2.4, p&lt;0.01 those with four FH compared to no FH), BP (OR=2.5, p&lt;0.05 those with four FH compared to no FH), ECG (OR=2.1, p&lt;0.01 those with four FH compared to no FH) and BMI (OR=7.7, p&lt;0.001 those with four FH compared to no FH).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Participants with more FH of disease were more likely to test for glucose, cholesterol, blood pressure, electrocardiograms and body mass index.</p> Javereeya A. Jabbar Alaa H. Al Masri Farah A. Oweidat Moustafa M. Al Ahmad Omnia B. Ali Zaid A. Oweidat Jayadevan Sreedharan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 919 923 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230601 Self-medication: a current self-care practice amongst tertiary college students <p><strong>Background:</strong> Self-medication is the action of taking medication without consulting a physician or healthcare professional. It is one element of self-care coupled with social support during unwellness and aid. Though advocated for by health promoters it has its own fair share of cons.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted where a sample was obtained using published tables and simple random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from a population of 800 student’s gaining a total sample of 267 and to account for non-response and loss 10% was added giving a total of 294 respondents.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence was 82.6% (218) and the age group with the highest frequency of 77.4% was 19-21 years. The male prevalence was higher than for the female with 60.1% (131). The study revealed highest source of information to be pharmacist with 37.8%, highest source of medication was drug shops with 38.1%, highest used medication to be coughs and cold syrups with 78% (205). The reason for self-medication with the highest percentage was suffering from minor illness with 75.37% (199). The symptoms that are highly self-medicated for were coughs and cold (78.7%), pains and headaches (74.2%), stomach discomforts (72.4) and fever (70%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study revealed a high prevalence of self-medication with 82.6% among the students. Creating awareness, enforcing the laws, informing the relevant stakeholders on availability of medicines and sealing the loops on dispensing of medication could save a generation. </p> Hannah W. Muiru Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 924 930 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230602 Clinically significant bacteria on doctors stethoscope in Makurdi, Nigeria and their antibacterial susceptibilities <p><strong>Background:</strong> The stethoscope is highly susceptible to contamination, specifically by the diaphragm that comes into contact with the patient’s body. This study aims at determining the presence of, and the most prevalent bacteria on medical interns and doctors’ stethoscopes at the federal medical centre (FMC) and Benue State university teaching hospital (BSUTH), Makurdi, assess antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates, and compare the levels of stethoscope contamination between the hospitals.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study undertaken between December 2020 and May 2021. A total of 99 samples were taken using sterile swab sticks from the diaphragms of the sampled stethoscopes. Standard microbiological and biochemical tests were performed to identify the bacterial diversity. A paired sample t-test was used to compare the numbers of bacteria-contaminated stethoscopes used by doctors and interns in the two hospitals. A p&lt;0.05 was considered as statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <em>Escherichia coli</em>, and coagulase negative <em>Staphylococci</em>, were found in all of the stethoscopes tested. <em>S. aureus</em> was found to be the most prevalent pathogen in both hospitals (43.43%), followed by CoNS (29.29%), <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em>, and <em>Escherichia coli</em> (both 16.16% and 11.11%) respectively. All of isolates were susceptible to the antibiotics tested. There was a significant difference in the numbers of stethoscopes contaminated from FMC (58.75, 19.31) and BSUTH (72.5, 18.52); t (3)=28.72, p=(9.27E-05), with BSUTH showing highest contamination. </p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> To reduce number of pathogens and risk of transmission, it is recommended that stethoscopes be sanitized after each patient consultation. Disposable stethoscope heads should also be considered to prevent cross-contamination.</p> Iveren W. Nyinoh Shima W. Ackombo Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 931 936 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230603 Wide-ranging performance of different eGFR equations in stage determination of Chronic Kidney Disease patients from endemic areas for CKD in Sri Lanka <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) is a public health issue at epidemic proportions in North Central, Uwa and other provinces of Sri Lanka. The initial diagnosis and stage determination of the disease are based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) particularly at community level screening. In this context, harmony and performance of pertaining equations were verified.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Three hundred and ninety-nine (399) volunteer CKD patients were recruited from select CKDu high prevalence areas (Padaviya, Girandurukotte, and Mahiyanganaya). Performance of kidney dysfunction determinants; serum creatinine (SCr), and serum Cystatin C (CysC), as well as markers; UACR, and eGFR variants; SCr based MDRD, SCr based EPI, serum CysC based EPI and SCr and CysC based EPI were scrutinized in terms of kidney disease improving global outcomes (KDIGO) heat-map guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Notable deviation was observed between SCr-based and CysC-based equations at early development of the disease (stage G1) suggesting that the latter may tend to under estimate disease development initially. UACR successfully confirmed diagnosis from eGFR equations including G1 proteinuric subjects (G1).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Comparative study of marker performances should improve eGFR based identification of initial CKDu cases in Sri Lanka.</p> Athige R. N. Silva J. M. Kithsiri B. Jayasekara P. G. Chandra L. Nanayakkara S. H. Nandana P. Gunawickrama Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 937 942 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230604 Factors associated with full immunization coverage among under-2 years children in Nepal <p><strong>Background:</strong> Immunization is a cost-effective intervention; countries committed to improving child health and well-being by 2030 and assessing overall progress towards the sustainable development goals are required to reduce vaccine-preventable illness and deaths, which profoundly rely on immunization.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Cross-sectional study was carried out in Nepal using secondary data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016 to fulfil the objective and find out the factors associated with full immunization coverage among under two years children in Nepal. This study was conducted in 21 districts based on a low human development index.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the 306 respondents, this study found that full immunization coverage was (42.2%) and male respondents 51 % were more vaccinated as compared to female 49% of respondents. Similarly, there were mother occupations statistically associated with full immunization coverage. Instructional deliveries (51.7%) were not statistically associated with full immunization coverage. Agriculture and services were 1.6 times more likely to be immunized as compared to not working women [OR 1.6 (0.99-2.56)]. Child age was statically associated with full immunization and children aged 12-23 months were 39 (19.51-79.17) and 24 (17.99-64.23).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Immunization is the most cost-effective and universal public health weapon. The overall full basic immunization coverage was still lower than the global target. BCG coverage was high; however, only half of the respondents received the second dose of measles. Complete basic immunization was significantly associated with child age, child sex, and mother’s occupation.</p> Salina Thapa Pramodh Chaudhary Raj Kumar Sangroula Arati Dhoju Shrestha Pabitra Balampaki Balampaki Janak Kumar Thapa Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 943 950 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230605 Assessment of medical records management practice at Al-Wahda Hospital in Derna city, Libya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Medical records support patient’s care, provide continuity in the event of a disaster and protect the interests of the organization and the rights of employees. The aim of the study was to assess medical records management at Al-Wahda hospital in Derna, Libya.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional design was conducted using various health professions including records officers, medical doctors, nurses for various department and the admitting clerks. A sample of 71 participants was selected using convenience-sampling technique. Data was collected using a questionnaire from August to October 2019.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study showed that there was poor management of medical records at Al-Wahda hospital. The study revealed that the medical records were found in paper format. It indicated that the policy in place is record management policy, and findings confirmed that the policies are not communicated to healthcare workers and professionals. Furthermore, control measures were mentioned by the hospital records administrator was storing of records in locked cabinets. Similarly, the hospital records administrator confirmed that patient records were kept for above 12 months, and methods of patient records disposal is manually by burning. The study also indicated that failure to have a computerization processes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The findings of the study recommended the use of policy guidelines in relation to the best practices of how medical records are managed; the use of electronic systems for opening, tracking and indexing of files; further a need to increase the number of record officers, training of records staff; and conducting regular records awareness workshops.</p> Saria M. Arhaim Raga A. Elzahaf Rwan S. Ghayth Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 951 957 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230606 Demand for modern contraceptives and use among women of reproductive age in north central Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> The maternal mortality rate in north central Nigeria remained unacceptably high and the use of modern contraceptives among women of reproductive age in north central Nigeria may be a way of reducing maternal death. The study aimed to determine the contraceptive uptake among women of reproductive age in north central Nigeria and the factors that influence the use of contraceptives.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was a secondary analysis of 2018 national demographic and household survey data. Data were abstracted for women of reproductive age 15-49 years across seven states in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The level of awareness of modern contraceptives was 91.6% while the modern contraceptive prevalence rate was 38.8% and current contraceptive prevalence use was 53.4%. The main source of information was radio 298 (22.4%) and the most common contraceptive used was implants 81 (29.3%) followed by hormonal contraceptive injections 77 (27.4%). The factors associated with the use of contraceptives include the age of the women, religion, level of education, number of children ever born, and partners’ opinion (p=0.001). The proportion of women who oppose contraceptive use was significantly higher (χ<sup>2</sup>=4.732, p=0.030). Similarly, the proportion of women whose husbands/partners opposed contraceptive use was significantly higher (χ<sup>2</sup>=8.589, p=0.003, OR=3.2).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The prevalence of contraceptive use is low in north-central Nigeria despite the high level of awareness. There is a need to involve the women’s partner to increase the uptake of contraceptive use. </p> Okehi O. Akpoti Abiodun J. Kareem Adesola O. Kareem Ayodele Y. Ogunromo Oluwatosin T. Owoeye-Lawal Liasu A. Ahmed Akintunde O. Akinyugha Temitayo O. Bewaji Emmanuel O. Babalola Eloho J. Orji Charles O. Atimoh Ogechukwu C. Ibekwe Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 958 967 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230607 Development of a local wisdom-based social media literacy model for K3 behavior in public transport drivers in Padangsidimpuan city, Indonesia <p><strong>Background:</strong> Unsafe driver behavior and driver negligence while driving, one of which is making phone calls while driving a vehicle, can cause traffic accidents and death.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The research design used a quasi-experiment. The research was conducted at the Padangsidimpuan city passenger terminal. The research subject was a public transport driver. Research intervention for 5 months by providing social media literacy modules/guidelines based on local wisdom, leaflets and posters, every month a visit or monitoring of drivers was carried out using a research questionnaire. The research instrument was a research questionnaire used to measure changes in OSH behavior (pre-test and post-test) and the media used were modules, leaflets and posters. Data were analysed by univariate, bivariate, multivariate analysis with SPSS and Friedman test, Mann Whitney test and post hoc test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of this study found that at the initial measurement of knowledge with the post 1 measurement, the p value =0.007, the initial measurement with the post 2 measurement p=0.000 and the post 1 and post 2 measurements p value =0.001. This means that there was a significant difference in knowledge between the initial measurement and the post 1 and post 2 measurements.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This finding can be concluded that knowledge of safe driving has a greater influence on unsafe behavior compared to years of service.</p> Nayodi Permayasa Anto J. Hadi Haslinah Ahmad Indra Maulana Dongoran Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 968 973 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230608 Knowledge and attitudes towards dietary patterns and lifestyle during COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: an online based cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background: </strong>COVID-19 outbreak being the only pandemic of 21<sup>st</sup> century, that affected globally, has left us with some realization that elucidate the advancement in science and medicine is not enough to live a healthy life for the generation of modern era, if lifestyle and habitual factors are not controlled or maintained in proper way. In this study we aimed to find out people’s knowledge and attitudes about dietary patterns and lifestyle during COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>An online based questionnaire was designed to collect the data based on the age limit of 15 to 60+ years. The survey was focused on both the affected and exposed individuals (n=853). The data was collected under three main sections containing questions about nutritional knowledge, preventive measures adapted by the respondents, lifestyle practices and their concerns.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The outcome of the study reveals, significant association between gender of the study and their food consumption diversity (p=0.026&lt;0.05), participants awareness about COVID-19 depends on their education level. Study also displayed the infection rate, acceptance of vaccination, change of food habit and weight gain tendency depends on the age of the individual, showing statistical significance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The outcome of the study acquaints that proper balance between knowledge and practice, is the most important attitude, which can build prevention against any new public health threat like COVID-19 outbreak.</p> Ielias Uddin M. Alshahria Rokon Sabiha Sultana Anika Jahin Mursalin Ibrahim Khan Shraboni Sultana Setu Mahnaz Rahman M. Sahedul Hasan Empa Yeasmin Asraul Hasibin Rini Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 974 980 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230609 Risk factors for stunting of under-five children in Myanmar <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study aimed to identify risk factors and assess their significance concerning childhood stunting in Myanmar.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study was conducted through the analysis of a secondary dataset based on the 2015-2016 Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey (MDHS 2015-2016), a program funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Among the 5239 under-five children who participated in the Myanmar DHS 2015-2016 survey, 4172 children with complete anthropometric measurements were included in this study. This was a cross-sectional study, and Chi-squared analysis was applied to determine the association of each risk factor with stunting. In addition, logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis of all risk factors combined.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 4172 children who participated in the study, 1146 (27.5%) were stunted. Type of place of residence, household wealth index, and maternal education level have a significant effect on stunting of under-five children with (χ<sup>2</sup>=52.79, df=1, p=0.000), (χ<sup>2</sup>=82.03, df=2, p=0.000) and (χ<sup>2</sup>=72.31, df=3, p=0.000) respectively. When applied to multivariate logistic regression analysis, all three factors remained significant predictors of stunting in under-five children.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Individual- and community-level factors determining the stunting of under-five children in Myanmar were explored. Government support programs for the occupation and income of the household heads and household members, as well as education programs targeting women in both the short term and long term, may help improve the condition.</p> Moe Zaw Oo Pa Pa Soe Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 981 986 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230610 Timing of elective term deliveries and its association with adverse neonatal outcomes <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pre and early term birth are one of the major causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity as compared to term infants. The risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality decreases with gestational age. Thus, this study aimed to determine the association of neonatal outcomes among early term and full-term elective deliveries.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A prospective cohort study was conducted at the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Pakistan. A total of 390 women, 195 in each study group were selected using a non-probability consecutive sampling. Demographic was presented as simple descriptive statistics giving mean and standard-deviation. Pearson’s chi-square and Fisher-Freeman-Halton exact test were used to compare qualitative data. Risk-ratios (RR) and confidence-intervals (CI) were calculated by using binary logistic regression. STATA V.17 SE software was used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 390 participants were recruited, including 195 patients in each group. The high prevalence of low Apgar score 5.6%, low birth weight 5.6% was found among early term when compared with full term. The respiratory distress was also reportedly high in early term neonates with 7.2%. Likewise, the prolonged hospital stays and NICU admissions were also more evident in early term elective deliveries i.e. 8.7% and 5.6%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Early-term births are associated with adverse neonatal outcome of low APGAR score, low birth weight, hospital stay, NICU admission and respiratory distress when compared with neonates born as full term through elective deliveries. Similarly, the risk of prolonged hospital stay and NICU admissions were higher among the early term neonates.</p> Varsha Advani Sidrah Nausheen Muhammad Sajid Tooba Jawed Khan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 987 992 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230611 Challenges of online and face-to-face learning and its relationship with learner’s motivation among undergraduate students during the post-COVID era <p><strong>Background</strong>: Online and face-to-face learning challenges influence students’ motivation. However, limited studies have yet been conducted to correlate students’ motivation with online and face-to-face learning challenges, especially in Malaysia. This study examined the challenges faced by learners during face-to-face and online learning and its relationship with learners’ motivation.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional- correlation study was conducted among year-3 to year-5 undergraduate students at the Universiti Malaysia Sarawak irrespective of gender and nationality. A total of 475 students’ data were collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Collected data were analysed using IBM SPSS version 27.0. Pearson’s moment correlation was used to examine the association between students’ motivation and online and face-to-face learning. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Technological challenge was weakly positively correlated with age (p&lt;0.05), gender (p&lt;0.05) and amotivation (p&lt;0.01). However, no statistically significant correlation was found with extrinsic, intrinsic motivation and CGPA (p&gt;0.05). Among the domains of challenges, the technological challenges were strongly positively correlated with the individual (p&lt;0.001), domestic (p&lt;0.001), institutional (p&lt;0.001) and community (p&lt;0.001) challenges. This study found that extrinsic motivation was positively correlated with intrinsic motivation, but both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation were negatively correlated with amotivation. All domains of challenges were positively correlated with amotivation of students.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Universities could organise strategies to improve the current teaching and learning methods to boost students’ extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.</p> M. Mizanur Rahman Enelson Calvin Anak Kuling Lishalinee A. Watumalai Qasdina Binti Mohamad Ting Sing Yie Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 993 999 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230612 Accelerating autism diagnosis using asynchronous telehealth technology <p><strong>Background:</strong> Early identification and treatment of autism can prevent additional behavioral problems later in a child’s life. Long wait lists and travel limitations can often make it difficult for parents to obtain timely evaluations. A new telehealth technology has been developed that can provide clinicians with the ability to remotely observe a child’s behavior at home and allows parents to communicate with the clinician directly. The objective of this study was to compare the length of time from referral to the completion of a child’s diagnostic evaluation using asynchronous telehealth (TH) and using the traditional in-person assessment method (IPA).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Three tertiary autism diagnostic centers in the United States conducted this study between 2016 and 2018. All three institutional review boards approved the research. Twenty-eight children were assigned to an IPA group and 29 children were assigned to a TH group. The IPA assessment was based on a standard in-person evaluation. Telehealth assessments used the naturalistic observation diagnostic assessment (NODA) system. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Required sample size was determined by power analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> For the three diagnostic centers, the average time from referral to completion of an autism diagnosis with IPA was 115 days and 66 days with telehealth.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The NODA TH video-capture smartphone‐based technology offered a significant timesaving advantage for families seeking autism diagnostic services. The TH technology provided families located in remote areas with easier access to autism evaluations.</p> Uwe Reischl Michael Morrier Gwen Mitchell Ron Oberleitner Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1000 1004 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230613 Vending environment and hygiene practices of street food vendors in an out of campus food environment in Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Street foods (SF) are ready-to-eat foods and the safety and hygiene practices of street food vendors (SFVs) are important in the prevention of food-borne diseases (FBD). This study assessed the food handling practices and vending environments of SFVs operating outside a public university (Chuka University) in Ndagani, Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study used an observational cross-sectional design where SFVs were observed during data collection. Census sampling was used to recruit 100 SFVs in Ndagani, Kenya. The collected data were summarized using frequencies and percentages. Chi square and regression analysis were used to assess the association and relationship between the SFVs’ demographic characteristic (sex) and their food handling practices and vending environment. Statistical significance was set at p<em>≤</em>0.05<em>.</em></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 100 SFVS who participated in the study 87% (n=87) were female. Only 10% (n=10) of the SFVs were vending in a sanitary environment while 88% (n=88) of the SFVs had sub-optimal food handling practices. There was an association between the SFVs sex and vending environment (p=0.003) and their food handling practices (p=0.008). Compared to male SVFs, female SFVs were 10.1 times more likely to vend in an unsanitary environment (OR: 10.1; C.I, 2.41-42.60<em>, </em>p=0.002) and 7.1 times more likely to have sub-optimal food handling practices (OR: 7.1; C.I, 1.84-27.79, p=0.005).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The majority of SFVs are working in unsanitary environments and not handling SFs safely and hygienically. SFVs need training on food safety to prevent an outbreak of FBD within the university community. </p> Catherine Gichunge Solomon Ogachi Willy Kiboi Eugine S. Mukhwana Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1005 1010 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230614 Influence of health institution related factors on health seeking behaviors among men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms attending surgical outpatient clinic at a county referral hospital Meru Kenya <p><strong>Background: </strong>Currently there is an increase in cases of men presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) especially in low resource countries. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of health institution related factors on health seeking behaviors among men suffering from LUTS attending surgical outpatient clinic at Meru county referral hospital, Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Population involved 120 men suffering from LUTS, 2 physicians and 2 nurses. The study tools used were questionnaires, key informant interview guides and focus group discussion guides. The quantitative data was analyzed using chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Hypothesis testing was done at an alpha level of significance of 0.05 such that any p-values below the alpha were deemed significant. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Health institutional related factors which included adequate personnel 2.57 [95% CI=1.09-6.06, p=0.032], adequate drugs 3.14 [95% CI=1.36-7.23, p=0.007], treated well by the health care workers 2.95 [95% CI=1.18-7.36, p=0.021], short duration time taken to be served in the hospital 2.40 [95% CI=1.12-5.16, p=0.025] and distance to the health facility 2.21 [95% CI=1.01-4.84, p=0.047], significant parameters associated with health seeking behaviors</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> There was significance influence of health institution related factors on health seeking behaviors among men suffering from LUTS.</p> Festus M. Muriuki Bernard W. Mbithi Sherry Oluchina Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1011 1018 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230615 Exploring physical and phycological condition of Jahangirnagar University students residing near university area during COVID-19 pandemic <p><strong>Background:</strong> Due of the closure of all educational institute as well as lockdown, the pandemic has affected physical and psychological health of all level students specifically university level students. Although the online based education was started but that brought different challenge to them. Thus, the study aimed to explore the physical and psychological problems faced by Jahangirnagar University students who resides near university area.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Data was collected through an online questionnaire (Google form) from Jahangirnagar University students who reside near the university area using convenient sampling method. To analyse the data, descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and ordinal logistic regression was executed along with graphical representations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study showed about 92.5% (moderately: 41.2 %, extremely severe: 18%, severe: 24.7%, mild: 8.6%) students were depressed while 94.8% extremely severe: 49.8%, mild: 2.2%, moderate: 15.4% and severe: 27.3%) students were suffering from anxiety problems during pandemic. Chi-square and ordinal logistic suggested “infected by COVID-19”, “sleeping time”, and “time usually spent on physical activity” were the risk factors for depression and anxiety. The study revealed 73.8 percent of respondents have long-term health-related complications where half (52.8%) of the respondents think that the COVID-19 pandemic has had an effect on their physical health.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study shows that throughout the COVID-19 period, a substantial percentage of Jahangirnagar University students experienced physical and psychological health issues. Proper initiatives should be taken by government and policymakers to boost up the mental and physical health condition of students.</p> Nahid Salma Piyash Ahmed Tareq Rahman M. Asraful Alam Shohel Mahmud Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1019 1027 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230616 Prevalence of fruit and vegetable intake in relation to weight status among undergraduate public university students in Nairobi City County, Kenya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Students in tertiary institutions such as public universities can make poor dietary choices, leaving them exposed to various kinds of malnutrition. The students could underestimate the dietary significance of fruits and vegetables despite their proven importance. This research aimed at establishing the prevalence of fruit and vegetable intake in relation to weight status among public university students in Nairobi County, Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A sample of 385 students was used where a self-administered questionnaire was used to gather data. Besides, a stadiometer and weighing scale were used to ascertain the height and weight of the students. Descriptive and inferential statistical approaches were used to analyse data using SPSS.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study determined that daily intake of fruits and vegetables by university students was low. Regarding weight status, findings showed 5.2% were underweight, most of the participants (54.9%) were within the normal weight range, 25.3% being overweight, while 14.6% were obese. Correlation results showed that there was a negative and significant linear relationship between intake of fruits and vegetable and BMI.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study concluded that fruits and vegetables are vital for an ideal weight status. The study recommends to students to ensure that they set aside an amount of the daily consumption expenditure to spend on fruits, as these are critical for the health today and in the future. Besides, students are advised to frequently monitor their BMI and take corrective actions before the situation deteriorates.</p> Elizabeth Mwania Eunice W. Njogu Judy W. Mugo Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1028 1034 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230617 The Study of musculoskeletal health problem among bankers in Kathmandu valley <p><strong>Background:</strong> Musculoskeletal disorders affect all persons regardless of age and sex and are prevalent across a wide range of industries and jobs. In Asian populations, a high annual prevalence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder in at least one body region is varied from 40% to 95%. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and identify the factors contributing to Musculoskeletal disorders.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Analytical cross-sectional and quantitative method was used. Random sampling was used to select the banks and convenience sampling was used to select the branches of those selected banks and finally, the census technique was used to collect the data from respondents. A structured questionnaire was designed and administered to study participants. Data collected from respondents were entered into Epidata 3.1 and were analysed and expressed using SPSS 26.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study showed the annual prevalence of Musculoskeletal disorder was 82.5% with the highest single MSDS prevalence of neck pain and the previous one-week prevalence rate was 37.6%. Gender (OR=2.543, 95% CI=1.082-5.974), age group 30-39 (OR=2.430, 95% CI=1.060-5.572, Physical activity (OR=7.379, 95% CI=3.004-18.12), Experience (OR=5.27, 95% CI=2.490-11.185), Repetitive task (OR=22.208, 95% CI= 9.744-50.617), Posture (OR=3.834, 95% CI=1949-7.543), Working hours (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.070-3.966) were found to be significantly associated with MSDs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Occupational Health and safety was one of the neglected areas in Banking industry. The concept of occupational safety and health is still new in Nepal.</p> Luna Kiran Adhikari Pramodh Chaudhary Raj Kumar Sangroula Roja Thapaliya Janak Kumar Thapa Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1035 1041 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230618 Prevalence and pattern of adverse events following immunization to Covishield vaccine in a tertiary care hospital: a cross-sectional analytical study <p><strong>Background: </strong>The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as the most important public health issue in the past two years. Multiple preventive and treatment modalities are being tried to contain this pandemic. Several countries have documented vaccines as a vital tool to combat this pandemic across the globe. Hence, we tried to evaluate the adverse events following immunisation at the study site following Covishield vaccination among front-line health workers in our tertiary care hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional descriptive study was planned in the vaccination site of our institute, where all details of the frontline workers who were vaccinated for the Covishield vaccine were included, and they were followed up to study the prevalence and pattern of AEFIs. The participants were observed for 30 minutes after the jab and were reviewed/called upon on the third day following immunization to gather information. The data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Our study included around 159 frontline workers and medical students who received their vaccination during the study period.<strong> </strong>The mean age distribution was 24.3±7.6 years, with female predominance. We observed an AEFI prevalence of 33.3% among the study participants at the end of 30 minutes, while after 30 mins and during the next 3 days of follow-up by our staff, we observed that the prevalence increased to 80%. We observed that the commonest AEFI observed at 30 minutes and during the 3 days follow up was tenderness/pain, fever, body ache and light-headedness. Only 4% of the patients required hospitalisation following AEFI.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Around 1/3<sup>rd</sup> of our study participants reported AEFI following vaccination during the first 30 minutes of observation which is much higher than the national average.</p> Suji V. Sumedhan Sangeetha Gopinath Karthika Gopan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-21 2023-02-21 10 3 1042 1047 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230355 A cross sectional study on nomophobia among medical students in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh <p><strong>Background:</strong> Medical students are using more applications of smartphones in their course besides the primary purpose of communication. The excessive usage of smartphone has given rise to a condition known as “nomophobia”. The objectives of the study are to estimate the prevalence of nomophobia and to evaluate the determinants of nomophobia among participants.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2022 among 320 undergraduate medical students of Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati. NMP-Q questionnaire used as a tool for data collection. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee and informed consent was taken from the participant. Collected data was coded and entered into a Microsoft excel and analysed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Prevalence of nomophobia among study subjects was found to be 100% (320); of which 59% showed moderate nomophobia followed by mild (35%) and severe nomophobia (6%). Nearly 60% of the students are using smart phone for communication, 56% for entertainment and 46% for study purpose.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> All participants were suffering from nomophobia with different grades of severity. It was significantly associated with age, year of study, number of apps used, average time spent with mobile and messages sent per day. Most of them were using smart phone for communication, entertainment and study purpose.</p> B. Yasoda Neelima J. Pavan Kumari R. Sowmya Pallavi T. Sivakala K. Srinivas G. Ravi Prabhu Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-08 2023-02-08 10 3 1048 1054 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230319 Clinical, etiological, microbiological and radiological features of bronchiectasis patients-an institution based analytical cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Bronchiectasis is an irreversible dilatation of more than one bronchus, with decreased clearance of secretions and expiratory flow. Secondary bacterial infection is so common, which worsens the disease. Sequelae of the disease lead to poor quality of life, with increased morbidity and mortality. This issue has limited literature.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Patients diagnosed to have bronchiectasis by HRCT chest in a tertiary care hospital, Alluri Sitarama academy of medical sciences, Eluru, A. P were included. Detailed clinical history was taken. After basic investigations, sputum samples were sent to CBNAAT and routine bacterial culture sensitivity. These patients were subjected to spirometry. Parameters measured in spirometry were forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1<sup>st</sup> second (FEV1), ratio of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1/FVC).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Forty patients were enrolled in this study. Majority of them were females i.e., 24 (60%). Most common symptom/sign was crackles (95%) followed by productive cough (92.5%), dyspnea (55%) and haemoptysis (28%). Increased growth of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (37.5%) was found followed by <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (30%), <em>Streptococcus</em> <em>pneumoniae</em> (15%), <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (2.5%) and <em>H. influenzae</em> (2.5%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Bronchiectasis, which is an end result of various diseases, commonly presents with productive cough, dyspnoea and haemoptysis, either as a single entity or as comorbidity with COPD or asthma. Knowledge of prevalent etiologies and types of bronchiectasis helps clinician for effective diagnosis and treatment of these patients.</p> P. C. Naveen Penmetsa Chinmai Sowmya B. Neeharika M. Venu Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-09 2023-02-09 10 3 1055 1060 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230331 Effect of asenapine and iloperidone on weight gain in patients of psychosis: a prospective study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Second generation or atypical antipsychotics are the most commonly used effective drugs for psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. But the drawback with the use of these drugs is that they tend to cause adverse effects; among which weight gain is an important one with risk of diabetes and adverse cardiovascular events. Weight gain is less with newer atypical antipsychotics. This study was conducted to compare weight gain with two newer atypical antipsychotic drugs, Asenapine and Iloperidone</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: It is a prospective study conducted on a total of 60 subjects who were diagnosed with schizophrenia or acute psychosis according to ICD 10 guidelines. The subjects were divided into two groups of 30 each. They received Asenapine (5-20 mg) and Iloperidone (8-24 mg) and were followed-up with weight measurements at baseline, week 1, week 3 and week 6.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 60 subjects, 5 patients were lost to follow-up. The mean weight gain in each of the groups was 2.18±1.84 kg with Iloperidone and 1.63±1.28kg with Asenapine, which was statistically not significant. Weight gain was dose-dependent, 3.63kg mean weight gain with 15-20 mg Asenapine and 3.45 kg with 18-24 mg Iloperidone; which was statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Weight gain was seen with both the atypical antipsychotic drugs, Asenapine and Iloperidone; which was only of mild to moderate degree. Among the two study drugs, Iloperidone showed more weight gain than Asenapine.</p> <p> </p> Koduru Neeraja C. Keerthi S. Sharon Sonia Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-07 2023-02-07 10 3 1061 1064 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230314 Assessment of non-communicable disease risk factors among Andhra Pradesh state road transport corporation bus drivers of Vijayawada <p><strong>Background: </strong>Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are lifestyle disorders, which contribute to 41 million total deaths globally. In India, it contributes to around 6 million (60%) of all deaths in 2021. The main objective of the study was to assess the socio-demographic factors, prevalence, and association between demographic profile and major NCD risk factors among Andhra Pradesh state road transport corporation bus drivers of Vijayawada.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>It is a cross-sectional study conducted from July to October 22 among APSRTC bus drivers aged above 20 years in Vijayawada. Data was collected by using a pre-designed modified world health organization questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results(n=120) from the current study showed that the majority of the driver’s mean age was 46.4±10.9, 37.5% had hypertension, 24.2% had diabetes, 54.2% had insufficient sleep, and 79.2% had work-related stress.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Occupational groups like bus drivers have more prevalence of NCD risk factors and which creates a burden on the healthcare system. A vigorous effort is needed to develop strategies for preventing and managing NCDs.</p> Sravanthi G. Harish K. Amarnath M. Ravikumar J. Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-10 2023-02-10 10 3 1065 1070 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230333 Psychological distress in relation to blood pressure among Andhra Pradesh state road transport corporation bus drivers, Vijayawada <p><strong>Background:</strong> One of the major health problem worldwide is elevated blood pressure (BP). Prior research had shown that hypertensives experience psychological distress, although pre-hypertensives have not yet been subject to this research. Objectives were to assess the major risk factors of increasing BP among bus drivers and to assess psychological distress in relation to BP levels.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross sectional study was conducted among Bus drivers aged above 20 years, study was carried out between July to October of 2022, a sample of 135 was taken. Inferential statistics such as Pearson Chi square test and an unpaired independent-sample t-test was used to assess the difference between pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals on GHQ score.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the present study (n=135), 47% were normotensive, 34% were in hypertensive stage and 19% were in pre-hypertensive stage. On assessment of psychological distress in relation to BP among bus drivers the mean of (General health questionnaire) GHQ-12 was found to be 17.57 among hypertensives and 17.86 among pre-hypertensives. Two tailed significance value of 0.768 was observed between pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals indicating that psychological distress had significant effects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>:</strong> The prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension was among bus drivers, leading to cardio vascular diseases which in turn causes increased morbidity and mortality, lowering individual productivity and having an impact on the national economy. The prevalence of non-communicable diseases should be monitored by lifestyle changes and periodic screenings.</p> Mary Chaitanya Y. Harish K. Bharani Parasuram J. Amarnath M. Ravikumar J. Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-18 2023-02-18 10 3 1071 1075 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230348 Clinical course, complications, immunization status and outcome of mumps in children <p><strong>Background: </strong>Mumps is a self-limiting viral disease in children which usually resolve within 10 days. It is characterized by fever, constitutional symptoms and swelling of the parotid gland(s) and may lead to serious complications. The most common complication is orchitis, followed by meningitis. Less common complications include pancreatitis, encephalitis, deafness, mastitis, oophoritis, and facial Bell palsy.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This is a hospital-based Prospective observational study where children age ≤18 years who presented with mumps were studied for immunization status, clinical course, complications and outcome.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Fever was the most common presentation followed by parotid involvement. The mean duration of illness was 9±2 days. Constitutional symptoms like headache, myalgia or fatigue were seen in 90 patients (60%). The most common complication seen was orchitis and tonsilitis, 4 cases (2.7%) each followed by pancreatitis (2%), febrile seizures (2%) and meningitis (2%). The least common was myocarditis (0.7%). Only 10 (6.7%) of the patients were hospitalized and none died. All the patients were cured within 2 weeks and without any sequels. The average loss of school days (school absentee) were 8 days. These complications were seen only in non- immunized patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The benefits of vaccination against mumps in addition to rubella and measles would be a logical public health intervention that would have a significant clinical and economic benefits and to prevent complications of mumps.</p> Naseer Yousuf Mir Jawad Nazir Wani Wamiq Farooq Bashir U. Zaman Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1076 1080 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230619 Assessment of social and economic impact of healthcare with homoeopathy for haemophilia in cognizance with patients’ perspective: a cross-sectional survey <p><strong>Background:</strong> Haemophilia imposes clinical as well as an economical burden on family and society. To assess the social and economic impact of healthcare in haemophilia from patients’ perspective a questionnaire was formed. Out of 900 patients treated at homoeopathy in haemophilia centers, 478 patients participated in the survey in the time period of January 2017 to June 2017. This questionnaire consisted of five categories. Part A included preliminary information, part B included the disease information, part C included direct cost incurred in terms of factor therapy, and part D included indirect cost incurred whereas part E included additional information regarding therapy satisfaction.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a cross-sectional survey-based study. Simple random sampling was used for sample collection at the multicentres of homoeopathy in haemophilia. Study duration was 5 months. Selection criteria was patients diagnosed with haemophilia and patients willing to participate in the survey. Ethical approval was received from Institutional Ethics Committee of Motiwala (National) Homoeopathic Medical College, Nasik, Maharashtra, India. Average was calculated to summarize the data, mentioned in discussion.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 56% haemophilia patients benefitted with homoeopathy treatment with SOS use of factor, 28% patients experienced homoeopathy is beneficial therapy and 16% patients experienced conservative management. 95.6% patients experienced satisfaction with treatment. 95.2% patient said homoeopathy is most economic therapy, 1.3% patient said it is a conservative management and 3.6% did not acknowledge anything.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> According to patients’ perspective, homoeopathic therapy was found to reduce the cost of care and burden of high-cost management.</p> Kundu Rita Kundu Tapas Shaikh Afroz Sheikh Aafiya Bothra Hiral Kumat Omkar Mirza Gulfisha Barve Uday Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1081 1090 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230620 Magnitude of pesticide use and its health effects among chilly farmers of Dammuru village, Bellary district, Karnataka, India <p><strong>Background:</strong> The second-largest industry in the world in terms of employment is agriculture. In other ways, working in agriculture is among the riskiest professions in the whole world. Each year, many farm workers have illnesses and workplace accidents. All people are exposed to some degree to pesticides, but farmers are more susceptible owing to the additional danger of occupational exposure.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Purposive sampling was utilized in this cross-sectional research on chilly farm workers in the Dammuru village of Bellary district, Karnataka. An MS Excel spreadsheet was used to input the collected data, which was then analysed using SPSS version 23.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 220 participants, 165 (or 75% of them) utilized items that were classified as class I (very hazardous), followed by 33 (or 15%) as class II (moderately hazardous), 16 (or 7.247%) as class III (somewhat hazardous), and 6 (or 2.72%) as class U (unsafe materials) (unlikely to present an acute hazard). The majority of the 220 individuals, 202 (91.81%) experienced health concerns, whereas the minority, 18 (8.18%), had no health issues.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> More than half of the survey participants reported having health issues, with a lack of information about the appropriate use of pesticides and improper use of protective gear being the major causes. 18 people (8.18%) did not have any health issues whereas 202 (91.81%) did.</p> Dodda Basava Janekunte Sunil Kumar Doddaiah Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1091 1096 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230621 Implementing an antibiotic cycle program to reduce antimicrobial resistance while optimizing antibiotic usage: a sobering experience from a tertiary care facility in northern Mumbai <p><strong>Background:</strong> The increase of antimicrobial resistance and the scarcity of new broad-spectrum antibiotics is a major challenge. Antibiotic cycling is one tactic that increases antibiotic homogeneity to the greatest extent possible and can aid in controlling resistance pattern, but this approach has not undergone a thorough evaluation. The study’s objective was to examine the effects of an antibiotic cycling strategy on the antimicrobial susceptibility profile by avoiding and alternately using beta lactam/beta lactamase inhibitors over a period of many years.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> During the four-year trial period, from January 2018 to December 2021, an antibiotic cycling protocol was applied for indoor patients. Piperacillin/tazobactam and cefoperazone/sulbactam were alternately rotated and withheld for the full year. Using the hospital’s antibiogram as a guide, antibiotics were chosen for cycling. Data obtained from positive clinical cultures were used for preparing antibiogram.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The general susceptibility profile of the most prevalent species remained stable or showed a minor increase in sensitivity. While piperacillin/tazobactam susceptibility failed to approach statistical significance, the antibiogram for cefoperazone/sulbactam indicated a 4% increase in susceptibility with a shift to the left of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Antibiotic cycling is a controversial idea, yet it can be a successful technique to achieve either stability or a continuous decrease in resistance to a chosen antibiotic. Additionally, for meaningful outcomes, the antibiotic selected and the length of cycling must be in accordance with the hospital’s antibiogram.</p> Kinjal Prashant Patel Suraj Purushottaman Trupti Carval Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1097 1102 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230622 Knowledge, attitude and practice among dentists of Gujarat regarding medico-legal issues <p><strong>Background:</strong> Law concerns with every field of human life and dentistry is no exception. Therefore, knowledge of legal aspects is as important as knowledge of medicine in life of health care professionals. The patient-dentist relationship had undergone a significant transition over the past few decades with upsurge anxiety in the community and increased lawsuits against dentists. Thus, a health care professional must know about medico-legal problems to protect oneself from legal issues.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional questionnaire was pre-tested among the group of 10 professionals prior to the study. It was made available to dental practitioners residing in Ahmedabad city. It was mandatory to answer all the questions. Data was collected through online survey forms and were subjected to descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that there was lack of knowledge in majority of dentists regarding medico-legal issues. Nearly half (53%) of the participants were unaware concerning consumer protection act and 81.33% of the candidates were not aware regarding minimum duration for the preservation of dental records. Around 56% were unaware about revised code of ethics and less than half know about negligence and non-negligence acts.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The present study depicted that majority of the dentists lack knowledge concerning medico-legal issues. Therefore, seminars should be arranged to intensify their knowledge regarding legal facets or more information should be added in dental curriculum.</p> Gunjan A. Bhatia Anvi R. Shah Devdatt J. Sharma Fatema M. Nakhuda Dhwani G. Mehta Vasudha Sodani Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1103 1107 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230623 A study for correlation of demographic data, chief complaints and risk factors with periodontitis <p><strong>Background:</strong> Periodontal disease, ever since the days of hippocrates has crippled the survival of human dentition. As a quiescent disease most of the time, periodontal disease presents mainly a chronic or asymptomatic chief complaint. In its most common form, periodontal disease generally is considered to be a painless process unless it reaches severe stages. For this reason, it often is overlooked by patients and dentists in early stages, especially when inflammation is not obvious<strong>. </strong>The aim of this study was to determine the most common chief complaints of chronic periodontitis patients to assess public awareness about this disease symptom, distribution of these chief complaints among males &amp; females and their correlation with age and some of periodontal parameters.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The data of patients include chief complaint of the patients, age-sex, patient’s education level, systemic and oral health status, smoking, tobacco and gutka chewing habits were collected. The examiner also collected information related to the toothbrushing frequency of each patient.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Total samples testing in the study were 100 (n=100). Out of which majority samples were female patients. Maximum samples were received from age group of 51-60 years. Major pre-disposing factor is Tobacco and Gutka Chewing. Majority of chief complaint was mobility of teeth.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>51 years to 60 years of age group with higher number of females and tobacco chewer have higher incidence of periodontitis with major chief complaint of mobility of teeth. These patients are brushing once in a day.</p> Urjita Vinchurkar Anvi G. Piludariya Palak R. Modi Yogita D. Mistry Gunvant Parmar Summaiya A. Mullan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1108 1111 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230624 Information related to tobacco products in Indian undergraduate college syllabus: a content analysis <p><strong>Background:</strong> Health education through college textbooks is effective in promoting knowledge, reforming, and improving health related behaviours among youths. This study evaluated the amount of tobacco related health and other information among the undergraduate college syllabus in their curriculum.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Under graduate college courses that were enrolled by students in the academic year 2019-2020 according to the All-India survey on higher education were included in the study. A total of 28 undergraduate courses under 12 governing bodies were included for content analysis. These curriculums were analysed by three examiners for the search of tobacco related keywords obtained from the WHO glossary of tobacco terms. The inter examiner reliability was calculated using the Cohen's Kappa in the SPSS software (version 25).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Total of 3383 pages of the curriculum from different undergraduate courses were analysed. Results showed that the total number of information related to tobacco appeared in the form of text as 15 and tabulations as 4, to a total of 19. Among the different courses, the tobacco-related contents were higher in MBBS curriculum. Distribution of the tobacco related contents under health information were found to be higher when compared to the tobacco cessation contents and laws.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The distribution of tobacco related contents were found to be very less among the undergraduate courses. There is a lack of information regarding the cessation process and guidance against tobacco related habits.</p> Anu Krishna Kumar S. Madan Kumar P. D. Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1112 1118 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230625 Influence of gender inequalities in curative and preventive health care use among children between 2 months to 5 years of age and its impact on changing sex ratio of the community <p><strong>Background:</strong> Male preferring mentality of the society has created a discrimination against females in seeking curative and preventive health care and their overall nutritional status.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Prospective observational study that included all the children between the age of 2 months to 5 years. The data collection started from January 2020 from registers in a monthly fashion till December 2020 and were analysed and categorized based on sex difference in admissions, leave against medical advice, mortality, immunisation, and follow-up.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The basic descriptive statistics shows that there is gross difference in the frequency of admissions in Inpatient (males- 58.33%, females- 41.67%), follow-up care (males- 56.33%, females- 43.67%) and immunization (males-53.06%, females-46.94%). The number of females children who left against medical advice (10.49%) were more than male children (6.45%) and is also statistically significant. In our study a greater number of female deaths (11.02%) occurred compared to males (10.15%) despite of their survival advantage. The number of female children (48.30%) who were admitted in nutritional rehabilitation centre were less compared to the number of males (51.70%). The hospital sex ratio at birth was 114 males per 100 females which is worse than the national average.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Male biased community has put females at risk starting from the time of conception. Gender difference is experienced throughout and in all aspects of social, cultural, healthcare fields and nutritional needs.</p> Avyact Agrawal Vishakha Ashokan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1119 1123 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230626 Oral health problems and treatment seeking behaviour of school going children and adolescents in Palampur area of Kangra district in Himachal Pradesh, India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Poor oral health is still a major burden for populations throughout the world, particularly in developing countries. However, it could not receive proper attention in our country. Present study was conducted mainly to investigate oral health behavior of school going children and adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Cross-sectional study was conducted during March 2022 to July 2022 among 268 students aged 6 to 19 years using stratified multistage random sampling technique in Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among all 268 respondents including 118 (44%) females and 150 (56%) males, 116 (43.2%) respondents were aware of oral health problems. There were 251 (93.6%) respondents not aware of good oral hygiene practices and 224 (83.6%) suffered oral problems during last one year. Only 168 (62.7%) out of 268 respondents consulted dentists. Whereas, 231 (86.2%) were scared of consulting during covid-19 lockdown. Among those who consulted, 87 (51.7%) didn’t face any problem during dental checkup and satisfaction with consultation was reported by 146 (86.9%) respondents. High cost of treatment (41.7%) fear of absence from schools (40.0%) followed by misconception that treatment was not necessary (31.0%) came out to be the most common reasons on non-consultation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Present study reported high prevalence of oral health problems and lack of awareness regarding good oral hygiene practices among respondents. Oral health education should be imparted among children and adolescents for adopting good hygiene practices and timely seeking dental health care.</p> Ashima . Dinesh Kumar Savita Prashar Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1124 1131 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230627 Social and micro-economic consequences of COVID-19 pandemic among urban slum population in Chandigarh- an analytical cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionately affected marginalized communities because of the loss of livelihood and lack of food, shelter, health, and basic necessities. This study assessed the socio-demographic characteristics, social and micro-economic aspect of health determinants during COVID-19 pandemic among patients attending urban health training centre (UHTC) in Indira Colony, Chandigarh.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> An analytical cross-sectional study conducted in urban health training centre, Indira colony. All patients aged ≥18 years attended UHTC OPD were recruited till the sample size (n=110) was achieved. By considering 95% level of significance, Kruskal Wallis test and McNemar test were applied to determine the association between different variables.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the participants were 40 years and nearly 40% belong to the age category less than 30 years. In pre-COVID-19, only 5% of the participants were found to have weaker relationship with family members, however, during COVID-19 pandemic this had increased to nearly 19%. The unemployment status in pre-COVID-19 and during COVID-19 pandemic was found to be 8% and 65% respectively, which is statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected the social and micro-economic status of the people living in the slum area due to closure of major economic activities.</p> Saranya R. Sathiabalan M. J. S. Thakur Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1132 1136 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230628 An assessment of the psychosocial distress and problems faced by street children living in Kolkata city: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Street children constitute a marginalized group in most societies. These children experience social and behavioural problems resulting from their environmental influences, school and peer interactions, home and family settings, or any combination of these. Keeping in view the prevalence of psychosocial distress among street children, this study was undertaken to assess the levels of psychosocial distress and problems faced by orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) living in Kolkata city.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a cross sectional analytical study. A total of 127 children were interviewed with the help of pre-validated semi-structured questionnaire. GHQ-12 scale was used to measure the symptoms of the psychosocial distress. Bivariate analysis with the help of Chi-square test was done to determine variations in the psychosocial distress experienced by OVC by age, gender, duration of stay on streets, education.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the study participants was 15±2 years. About one third of the children showed symptoms of severe psycho-social distress with 30% of children showing signs of intentional self-harm. Age, education and duration of living on the streets were some of the factors that showed significant correlation with the levels of psychosocial distress.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study concludes that although institutional care and support from NGOs takes care of basic amenities such as shelter, food and education, there is a need to address the psychological needs of the children through teacher sensitization programmes. A well-informed caregiver would be able to address the needs of children under his supervision and care.</p> Navneet Kaur Sandhu Shubhralok Sinha Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1137 1142 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230629 A cross sectional study to assess the nutritional status of under five children in block Hajin of Kashmir valley <p><strong>Background: </strong>Nutrition can be defined as the science that studies food and how food nourishes our body and influences our health. Proper nutrition can help us improve our health, prevent certain diseases, achieve and maintain a desirable weight and maintain our energy and vitality. Malnutrition is a broad term commonly used as an alternative to under nutrition (wasting, stunting and underweight) but technically it also refers to over nutrition (overweight and obesity). Nutrition is particularly important in early childhood when growth is most rapid. Assessment of nutritional status of under-5 children in block Hajin and to identify the factors associated with malnutrition in these under-fives. </p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This is a community based cross sectional study, conducted in health block Hajin on a random sample of 403 under five children using multistage sampling technique based on probability proportionate to size (PPS). </p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>depicts that most of the children belonged to age group 25-60 months (45.9%), there was female preponderance (54.1%) among the study subjects. Most of the study subjects were having birth order first (40.9%). Majority of the study population were having birth interval between 2 to 3 years (40.8%). </p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>From the study it is concluded that prevalence of different forms of malnutrition was comparatively lower as compared to national data. Malnutrition was more in infants, female gender, under-fives belonging to nuclear families, having illiterate mothers and those belonging to lower socioeconomic status.</p> Rabia Ahmad Shah Anjum B. Fazili Rohul Jabeen Shah Uroosa Farooq Allaq Band Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1143 1148 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230630 Effect of nursing interventions like meditation, progressive muscle relaxant exercises, and counselling on lifestyle and diet modification on marital relationship among women undergoing infertility treatment: randomized controlled trial: a pilot study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Infertility has an impact on marital pleasure. Couples who are unhappy in their relationship are also more likely to have various negative psychological, social and physical health issues. Nurses can play a significant role in the management of infertility and its consequences. The recent study aimed to evaluate the effect of nursing interventions on marital relationship among women undergoing infertility treatment.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> By using a systematic sampling technique, 60 infertile women with marital disharmony (30 experimental and 30 control group) were included in the current randomized control trial. After getting their consent relationship assessment scale was used to estimate the marital relationship. The experimental group underwent the nursing intervention (Raja yoga meditation, progressive muscle relaxant exercises, advices on lifestyle and diet modification) for 5 subsequent visits apart from 15 days and the control group underwent standard medical care. Succeeding the intervention after one month’s last intervention, the relationship assessment scale was again applied to both groups.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Before the interventions both the groups were homogenous according to mean, SD and chi square values. After applications of dependent t-test, the mean score before and after nursing interventions the mean score was 13.70 SD 3.99 and 18.33 SD 2.89 respectively. The mean difference of marital relationship was 4.633 (t<sub>29</sub>=10.640, p=0.001). Independent t test was applied which reveals that the mean difference between experimental and control group was 3.867 (t<sub>58</sub>=4.215, p=0.001) which was statistically highly significant at 0.001 level.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> After implementing the nursing intervention, the study’s finding showed an improvement in the quality of marital relationship.</p> Rajbir Kaur Aulakh Harjit Kaur Uppal Sangeeta Pahwa Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1149 1155 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230631 Assessment of the magnitude of behavioural risk factors among school going adolescents of Kashmir valley: a cross sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Adolescents are one sixth of the world’s population and account for 6% of the global burden of disease and injury. The unique health issues associated with adolescence have been little understood. Adolescence is a period when many behaviours are consolidated which have major effects on future adult health.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional study was conducted in a total of 8 schools in order to assess the magnitude of various behavioural risk factors among school going adolescents. 614 students in the age group of 10-19 years were included in the study. Data was collected using modified WHO global school-based health survey questionnaire. Weight and height of the adolescents were also taken to assess their nutritional status.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the present study 45% of the participants resorted to diet restriction. 19.2% of the adolescents felt lonely. 18.2.5% of the participants had disturbed sleep and 8.8% of them reported having had suicidal thoughts. 3.9% of the participants had ever smoked cigarettes, 3.9% had ever consumed alcohol and 1.8% had ever used drugs. 28.3% of the adolescents reported having been physically attacked and 12.5% reported having been bullied. 29.5% had a screen time of 3 hours or more.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> It was observed that behavioral risk factors like unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activity and substance abuse were quite prevalent in the adolescents. Health education on all these behavioural risk factors and incorporation of life skills education in the school curriculum will help in improving the overall health of the adolescents.</p> Darakshan Ali Suhail Shah Muzamil Nazir Anjum B. Fazili Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1156 1160 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230632 Are farmers aware of first aid measures for their injuries-a survey in rural Karnataka, India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Agriculture, being the main source of livelihood in most parts of the country, has some hidden dangers to the farmers which get them injured or ill.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted for 2 months among farmers aged &gt;18 years of age residing in rural Mysuru. A purposive sampling technique was used and the data was collected from 150 farmers through house-to-house interviews using a pre-tested structured questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The survey took account of the farmer's opinion on first aid procedures; a vast majority of the practices weren’t supported by any scientific evidence. Ineffective first-aid procedures could worsen the problem. Thus, the farmers should receive sufficient first aid training and education, enabling them to take appropriate action for themselves and their communities in an emergency.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The survey took account of the farmer's opinion on first aid procedures; a vast majority of the practices weren’t supported by any scientific evidence. Ineffective first-aid procedures could worsen the problem. Thus, the farmers should receive sufficient first aid training and education, enabling them to take appropriate action for themselves and their communities in an emergency.</p> Nayanabai Shabadi Deepak Anil Vanmathi A. Saurish Hegde Nagendra L. Kruthika B. N. Ravindra Salkatte Sunil Kumar D. Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1161 1165 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230633 Etiology of severe anemia in Kashmiri children aged 6 months to 6 years <p><strong>Background:</strong> Anemia is said to be present when the hemoglobin level is more than two standard deviations below the mean for the child’s age and sex. Anemia is the most common global nutritional disorder and may lead to psychomotor retardation, low intelligence, decreased learning capability, weakening of immune system and predisposes to serious infections in children.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was an observational study. Physical signs of severe anemia were looked in patients attending outpatient department or admitted in hospital. Children with hemoglobin levels &lt;7 gm/dl and in the age group 6 months to 6 years were recruited in study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study included 192 patients with a male, female ratio of around 1:1. The mean age of the study subjects was 2.2±1.6 years. Most of the patients around 54% belonged to age group of 6 months to 1½ years. Fever was most common presentation in 86 cases (44.77%), followed by diarrhea and easy fatigability in 38 (19.79%) and 21 (10.93%) patients respectively. A total of 76.56% of patients were having nutritional and 23.44% non-nutritional causes. Iron deficiency anemia is most common etiology 115 (59.90%) with 14 patients having celiac disease, 19 cases (9.90%) were diagnosed as megaloblastic anemia, 13 cases (6.77%) were diagnosed as dual deficiency anemia, 30 cases (15.63%) were diagnosed as hemolytic anemia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Nutritional anemia is major cause of anemia in children. Celiac disease, trichuriasis, cow milk protein allergy should be ruled out in iron deficiency anemia patients.</p> Naseer Yousuf Mir Wamiq Farooq Jawad Nazir Wani Bashir U. Zaman Muzaffar Jan Kaiser Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1166 1171 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230634 A cross-sectional study assessing the effectiveness of hygiene related interventions and education delivered in an afterschool club in urban slums of Gurugram <p><strong>Background:</strong> There is insufficient evidence about the effectiveness of hygiene related interventions and education delivered to out of school children, attending non-formal schools in urban slums.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross sectional, interventional study was conducted from January 2022 to April 2022 in a non-formal school in an urban slum in Gurugram, Haryana. A validated questionnaire about hygiene related practices was used to record the behavioural practices of these children before and after education about hygienic practices. The children were also provided with soap, detergent, and four sets of clothes to enable them to follow the hygienic practices. The pre and post intervention status of various hygiene variables was compared. A p&lt;0.01 was considered as statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 97 children included in this interventional study, 54 were boys. All of them were from the lower socioeconomic class, with 93% of the mothers and 98% of the fathers being illiterate. The percentage of unhygienic practices decreased significantly post intervention. All the p values for comparison between the pre and post intervention status of various hygiene variables were highly significant statistically (p=0.001). Maximum improvement was seen in case of brushing teeth, cutting nails, using footwear and bathing (2.86). Similarly, the total mean score for unhygienic practices (higher score indicating more unhygienic practices) for pre intervention was 30.62 which decreased to 10.54, indicating a total improvement of 20.08.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Hygiene related interventions including continuing education, and provision of clothes and detergent, can improve hygienic practises in out of school children who attend non-formal schools in slums.</p> Shibal Bhartiya Tarundeep Singh Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1172 1177 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230635 The impact and pattern of WhatsApp use among the school students during the COVID-19 lockdown in a city of Western India: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> COVID-19 pandemic has been a global serious problem adversely affecting human life. This study aimed at documenting the impact and pattern of WhatsApp use among the school students during these unprecedented times.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted on 434 students belonging to grade IX, X, XI and XII, of 13-19years age group, from randomly selected four English medium schools of Surat city, India. Univariate and bivariate analysis was carried out by Epi-info software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> One out of every six students (16.5%) of Class IX used WhatsApp for &gt;1 hour per day compared to 13.6% of Class XII students (χ2: 23.478, DF=6, p=0.001). The total time spent on WhatsApp per day by 22.8% of girls and 13.5% of boys was &gt;1 hour (χ2: 11.532, DF=2, p=0.003). Almost 22% students of Class IX were checking WhatsApp status every time they hear message tone compared to 15.2% of Class XII students at work/ class (χ2: 19.168, DF=9, p=0.024) and at home/leisure time (χ2: 19.009, DF=9, p=0.025). A quarter (23.04%) of students reported that they would continue the use of WhatsApp even if it becomes a paid application. The most common reason for using WhatsApp among boys was its user-friendly nature while for the girls it was the ease of use.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Girls as compared to boys spend more time on WhatsApp per day and have more number of groups where they are active. Class IX students were more prone for problematic use of WhatsApp as compared to the rest.</p> Raktim Engti Mohmmedirfan H. Momin Shailee N. Vyas Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1178 1184 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230636 Vitamin D status in 5-15 years old children attending pediatric OPD in tertiary care hospital in Jammu and Kashmir, North India: a cross sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Vitamin D is vital in children mainly because of its profound effect on growth, development, immune system and importantly bone health. Recent evidence suggests maintaining 25 (OH) D levels above 20 ng/ml for maximizing health benefits. Objectives were to assess the vitamin D status in children in the age group of 5-15 years attending a tertiary care teaching institute of North India and to analyze the factors which can contribute to vitamin D deficiency in these children.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a cross-sectional study. 5-15 years old children attending the outpatient department were included in the study. Children with co morbid conditions that affect vitamin D metabolism and those children on chronic drug treatment and on vitamin D supplementation were excluded from the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Average age of study population was 8.93±2.02. In the study 170 (18.47%) children among a total of 920 had a normal vitamin D status while the rest 750 children (81.52%) had insufficient vitamin D status (25 hydroxy vitamin D &lt;30 ng/ml). Among these children 190 (26.38%) had suboptimal vitamin D levels, 300 (40%) were deficient, 143 (19.06%) had severe and 117 (15.6%) had very severe deficiency of vitamin D. The average vitamin D level among the study population was 12.33±11.13 ng/ml. There was significant statistical association between vitamin D deficiency and stunting (p=0.003). No statistically significant association was found between outdoor activity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Vitamin D insufficiency was documented in 81.52% of 5-15 years old children and there was a significant association between stunting and vitamin D deficiency.</p> Sumaira Chowdhary Mudasir Shafi Heena Nazir Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1185 1190 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230637 Knowledge, awareness and practices towards exclusive breastfeeding among lactating mothers in Kashmir, North India: a hospital based cross sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Addressing good breastfeeding practices in lactating mothers is important as it helps in bringing about a positive change in the behaviour, attitude, and practice with appropriate health education. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the knowledge, awareness and practices of lactating mothers regarding breastfeeding and identify the factors associated with it.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We conducted this hospital based cross sectional study among 349 lactating mothers at pediatric outpatient department of a tertiary care centre in Kashmir, North India between July to October 2022. Details regarding the socio-demographic characteristics and awareness/knowledge about the breastfeeding were collected using pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Data was collected through face-to-face interview.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Majority of the participants 305 (87.4%) knew the meaning of exclusive breastfeeding and it is important for both mother and child. About (68.8%) had moderate knowledge about breastfeeding. Chi square test showed a significant association between level of knowledge and age, education and family type where p value was 0.000.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Our findings showed that the practice towards exclusive breast-feeding was low. Thus, it is important to provide prenatal education to mothers and fathers on breast-feeding. We also recommend strengthening the public health education campaigns to promote breast-feeding.</p> Sahila Nabi Nazia Zahoor Furqanah Muzamil Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1191 1196 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230638 Assessment of the nutritional status and dietary practices of the adolescents in the urban field practice areas of Trichy SRM Medical College and Research Centre <p><strong>Background:</strong> Malnutrition is still prevalent globally with the coexistence of both overnutrition and undernutrition in developing countries affecting people of all ages. Adolescents are particularly at risk of malnutrition due to rapid growth and development and changes in dietary habit that influences their nutrient intake. Dietary and other lifestyle behaviors formed during adolescence contribute to adulthood behaviors. This study therefore aimed at assessing the dietary practices and nutritional status of adolescents in urban field practice areas of Trichy SRM Medical College and Research Centre.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This wass a cross-sectional study with a sample size of 191, conducted in urban field practice areas of Trichy SRM Medical College and Research Centre. The adolescents (11 to 19 years) are the study participants, and a simple random sampling method was followed to recruit the study population. A pretested semi structured questionnaire containing variable details and anthropometric measurements were taken. The chi-square test was used to find the association between different variables and malnutrition.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the study population 137 (71.7%) of the adolescents have calorie deficits with 24 hours recall method of food intake. Among the study population, 138 (72.3%) have normal BMI, 2 (1%) were overweight, 29 (15.2%) were thin and 22 (11.5%) are very thin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Malnutrition is still persistent in the adolescent population which should to addressed with additional specific interventions focusing on this age group. Focused interventions to improve appropriate calorie intake are to be initiated at the community and school level.</p> Sripriya Govindan Hemalatha Kumarasamy Raghuram V. Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1197 1202 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230639 A mixed-method study to evaluate the knowledge and marshalling of untied funds in rural area <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong> NRHM provides health facilities with unlimited flexible funds to improve the quality of care, in addition to funds for the upkeep and improvement of health facilities, human resources (contractual appointments), equipment, supplies, and medicine, training, and capacity building. The Untied Funds (to be used at the discretion of the facility in charge, primarily as a contingency fund). This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of the financing strategy, knowledge, facilitators, and barriers to underutilization of untied funds.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A mixed-methods study was carried out to determine the utilisation patterns and knowledge of health workers about untied fund. A qualitative study that used a grounded theory approach to identify the facilitators and barriers to effective use of Untied funds. RHTC-Mandawar and its six subcenters were included in our study.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The entire mixed-method study clearly demonstrated the barriers and facilitators observed at the subcenter sites. Because health workers were understaffed and overburdened with work, their knowledge was also alarmingly low. Furthermore, no refresher training was provided to them. Finance, a tricky aspect of this programme, was handled with extreme caution.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Before untied funds lapse, they must be reviewed and monitored. Refresher training and detailed guidelines are required before funds can be used to improve the health facility and provide additional services to beneficiaries.</p> Somya Thakan Aditya Mehta Deepika Verma Lakhan Singh Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1203 1206 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230640 Professional quality of life among physicians posted in COVID-19 clinics at a tertiary care hospital in South India: a cross-sectional analytical study <p><strong>Background: COVID-19 pandemic has largely affected the well-being and quality of life among health care workers. </strong>We undertook this study to assess the burden and determinants of compassion satisfaction, burnout and Secondary traumatic stress among resident doctors</p> <p><strong>Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was done among the residents posted in covid wards </strong>for clinical duties in tertiary care in Puducherry. All residents who did at least 5 shifts during the last month of their COVID duty were emailed a google form that contained the professional quality of life questionnaire version 5.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Around 108 residents agreed to participate in the study. We found that around 80% of the residents experienced moderate compassion satisfaction, while 73% of them experienced moderate burnout, and 66% of them experienced secondary traumatic stress. Speciality, marital status, tobacco use, and being posted in ICU/wards stood out as independent determinants of burnout, while caffeine/ alcohol and tobacco intake were found to be associated with secondary traumatic stress.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Thus, our study highlights the burden of burnout among residents posted in COVID wards.</p> Sathish Rajaa Dhanajayan Govindhan Mahalakshmy Thulasingam Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1207 1213 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230641 A demographic and descriptive study on depression status of adolescent population of Ahmedabad city in India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Depressive indications and spirituality are prevalent all around the world, but their coherent existence has received moderately minute consideration from majority psychological health experts. This quantitative research examines relationships between spiritual participation and depressive indications or disorders. Religious beliefs and rituals possibly will aid public to deal with improved stressful life conditions, give sense and hope, and encircle unhappy people with an encouraging society. This study aimed to investigate the role that spiritual factors play in inhibiting depression and will lend a hand to determine whether this is a resource or a liability in adult age group.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The present study was carried out in Ahmedabad city in the period from November to December 2022. A total of 400 adults were included in the study, which were selected using multi-stage sampling aged between 18 years to 59 years.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The obese adults had significantly higher depression levels. Depression had a negative correlation with spirituality levels. Regression analysis also demonstrated that the spirituality was one of the influencing factors affecting depression.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Spirituality is negatively associated with depression.</p> Nitin R. Thakor Jayshree N. Tolani Pravender Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1214 1217 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230642 Pattern, knowledge and attitude regarding substance use among youth (11-24 years): findings from an exploratory survey <p><strong>Background:</strong> Substance use disorders are becoming a serious public health concern with its slow but gradual increase among adolescents and young adults. The study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of youth about substance use.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted among youth visiting various outpatient departments of a tertiary care teaching hospital. 270 youth participated in the study and were interviewed using pre-tested and pre-structured proforma entailing information on knowledge, attitude and practices about substance use disorders.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 270 study subjects, 54 (51 males and 3 females) had ever used drugs. Among male users, 96.07% used drugs for joy seeking whereas among females 66.66% used drugs due to teenager curiosity. All the respondents had information about drug use, with friends being the major source of information (85.18%) followed by electronic media (81.85%) and school curriculum (48.51%). 97.03% of the respondents knew that anxiety, euphoria, depression, happiness and aggressiveness can occur with substance abuse. Both males (98.64%) and females (97.91%) expressed a positive attitude towards helping a friend who is into drug abuse. Age at first use for tobacco (4%), alcohol (6.38%) and inhalants (12.5%) was found to be as young as 12-15 years.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The study participants were found to be knowledgeable about substance use disorders and had a positive attitude on majority of the attitude items. No current user and only 20% ever users in the study may be underreporting.</p> Muzaffar H. Mir Rajiv K. Gupta Bhavna Langer Rashmi Kumari Richa Mahajan Mehak Taban Mir Hemaal Koul Amani Majeed Burhan Hameed Raheel Murtaza Nazir Sirjan Singh Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1218 1223 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230643 Prevalence of menopausal symptoms and health-seeking behavior of school teachers with menopausal symptoms in Kumbakonam, South India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Menopausal transition shows symptoms that vary from one woman to another, it includes vasomotor symptoms, sexual symptoms, and psychological symptoms. A determination of the most common medical problem in this broad occupational group serves as the premise for actions that help teachers to preserve their health and their ability to work in their profession. Objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of menopausal symptoms among peri and post-menopausal school teachers in Kumbakonam and to determine the health-seeking behavior of school teachers with menopausal symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among female teachers aged between 40-60 years in Kumbakonam. The random sampling technique was used, and a total of 264 teachers were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the sociodemographic details and the menopausal rating scale was used.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean (SD) age of the participants was 51.67 (4.9). 49.25% were peri-menopausal, 50.8% were post-menopausal. Among the reported symptoms of peri-menopausal, irritability (68.5%), physical and mental exhaustion (66.1%), and joint and muscular pain (66.2%) were predominant. In post-menopausal women, preponderant symptom was 73.9% suffers from joint and muscular pain followed by sleep problems (70.2%), physical and mental exhaustion (63.4%). 31.8% of menopausal women sought health care services.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> In this study it was found that 93.5% of menopausal women experienced atleast menopausal symptom. However, majority did not seek health care services. Implementing a health education could be a measure to enhance health-care seeking behavior. Improved awareness and access to healthcare services can improve proper health-seeking behavior.</p> Madhuvarshini Sundararajan Valarmathi Srinivasan Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1224 1231 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230644 Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding dengue among the general population of Goa <p><strong>Background:</strong> Dengue is a major health problem in India. The state of Goa has seen a rise in the incidence of Dengue. The study was conducted to understand the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the people regarding this disease.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted on a sample of participants of the state of Goa. Data on demographic characteristics and KAP was obtained from participants through Google forms.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A large number of participants had adequate knowledge of the source of infection and even modes of transmission. Knowledge of symptomatology and treatment was seen to be inadequate. Symptoms such as pain behind the eye and abdominal pain were known by less than 33% of the population. 61.84% were aware that dengue is transmitted through <em>Aedes</em> mosquito. Knowledge of symptoms and the vector transmitting dengue virus was least among the non-student participants. 44.7% of the participants opined that papaya leaves are beneficial for treatment with a higher proportion among the non-student population. Knowledge of the complications of dengue such as dengue haemorrhagic fever was reported by 56.6% of the population while dengue shock syndrome was reported by 32.3% of the population.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Findings indicate there is lesser knowledge of symptomatology and epidemiology of dengue among the non-student participants compared to the student participants. Educational and health programmes are needed to increase knowledge among the general population, campaigns specifically targeting the non-student population are required.</p> Manfred F. Cardozo Ezekhil Balaji Ajish Francis Amit Dias Lydia Dias Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1232 1328 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230645 Assessment of the need and effectiveness for nutritional counselling through Swasthya Poushan webportal for mothers of under five in Mysuru <p><strong>Background:</strong> Child growth and development is multifactorial influenced by the environment, living conditions, socio-demography and various other demographic factors. Infant feeding practices breastfeeding practices are important components to be addressed. Therefore, online counselling provides a good service for mothers to access useful information. Objectives of the study were: to assess the need and effectiveness of an online nutritional web portal for under five mothers, and to find the barriers in the usage of the website.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a quasi-experimental study, for a duration of one month. It was conducted in JSS urban primary health centre, under the department of community medicine in Medhar bloc. Necessary consents from the participants were taken. An online self-structured questionnaire was assessed pre and post the intervention. Study duration was for one month.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The major findings from the study shows that only the educated class of mothers, i.e. 6 of the 30 mothers went through one round of online nutritional counselling. They did find counselling useful for further practices and there was an increase in their knowledge. Among those who didn’t access the website, they cited housework, not aware and discomfort with the website as their reasons not to use.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> There is surely a need for online nutritional counselling for mothers with under five, as it will provide them quick access to valuable information regarding feeding. There are many barriers, one is awareness and education on website usage and linking it to the individual needs.</p> Saurish Hegde Nagendra Lokesh Aisha Siddiqua Shreyaswini Rameshbabu Sunil Kumar Doddaiah Jagadish Kumar Kalenahalli Ravindra Salkatte Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1239 1243 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230646 Hepatitis B vaccination status and knowledge, attitude, and practice of hepatitis B among medical students at a medical college in central India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection imposes a major public health problem with an increased risk of occupational exposure among unvaccinated health care workers (HCWs). This study was conducted to determine the Hepatitis B vaccination status, along with the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding Hepatitis B, among medical students at a medical college in a central India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2022 to July 2022. A total of 477 students of health care professions were included into the study using a whole sampling technique. Data were collected using self-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed by using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 26.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Response rate was 91.61% (437). Majority of the students (&gt;80%) had an adequate knowledge on risk factors for HBV, its mode of transmissions, and preventions. About 192 of 437 (43.9%) participants had positive attitude towards following infection control guidelines, and 310 (70.9%) respondents believe that all HCWs should take HBV vaccine. However, only 11.2% students had completed the three doses schedule of HBV vaccination. Whereas, a significant number of students, 142 (32.5%), had been exposed to blood/body fluid via needle stick injury at least once since they started their training in the health facility.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Study found that trainees in health profession are at a very high risk of contracting HBV infection during their training due to the low HBV vaccine uptake rate and high rate of accidental exposure to blood. We recommend that all students in the health profession should be vaccinated prior to their entry into professional practices.</p> <p> </p> Subodh R. Thote Gajanan C. Soyam Manish A. Dhakate Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1244 1249 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230647 COVID-19 and the Indian healthcare scenario <p><strong>Background:</strong> The Indian economy and health system has been shaken to the core by the sudden strike of the COVID-19 pandemic. The already fragile and underequipped public health system reeled under the pressure of escalating cases of infection and demand for hospitalization of critical and emergency cases of COVID. Although the private healthcare sector worked in sync with the public counterpart and provided adequate support for case management, the former is not expected to play the primary role when it comes to a public health crisis like COVID-19. The study attempts to explore the pattern of utilization of the existing health system by Indian households in the event of general illness, which is expected to throw some light on the mechanism for devising an optimal public-private mix for management of COVID or similar public health threats in future.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was exploratory and based on secondary data. It employs unit level data from NFHS-4 (2015-16) besides published reports and documents.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Health insurance coverage is low among households belonging to the lowest wealth quintile. Inequalities in access to quality health care coupled with spiraling health costs due to COVID and falling incomes continue to push such vulnerable households into poverty and debt.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Public expenditure on health should be increased with a shift in focus from curative to preventive care.</p> Paramita Barman Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1250 1255 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230648 Non-nutritional causes of severe anemia in Kashmiri children <p><strong>Background:</strong> Anemia is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in children. The etiology of anemia is multifactorial including nutritional anemia, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, storage disorders, hematological malignancies, anemia secondary to some chronic diseases.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study is an observational study. Physical signs of severe anemia were looked in patients attending outpatient department or admitted in hospital. Children with hemoglobin levels &lt;7 g/dl and in the age group 6 months to 6 years were recruited in study. The aim is to look for non-nutritional etiology of severe anemia in children in Kashmir.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 192 children, 97 (50.52%) females and 95 (49.48%) males, with a male, female ratio of around 1:1. A total of 147 (76.56%) children in our study were having nutritional and 45 (23.44%) were having non nutritional causes. Among non-nutritional anemia 30 cases were hemolytic anemia, 11 hypoplastic anemia, 3 leukemia and 1 patient were diagnosed as Osteopetrosis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Though nutritional deficiency anemias are predominant; it may not always be the case. Hemolytic anemia and leukemias should be ruled out while evaluating a patient of severe anemia and pancytopenia. Bone marrow failure syndrome, storage disorders should be ruled out in patients with skeletal anomalies.</p> Naseer Yousuf Mir Bashir U. Zaman Jawad Nazir Wani Mohammad Imran Malik Muzaffar Jan Kaiser Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1256 1260 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230649 The long-term adverse events and persisting clinical symptomatology post COVID-19 infection among the healthcare workers of a tertiary care hospital in West Bengal <p>COVID -19, a global pandemic, has dominated every person’s life worldwide. The clinical presentation of COVID-19 ranges from asymptomatic, mild symptomatic to fulminant and fatal cases, having consequences for many organ systems. In a cross-sectional study, 128 healthcare workers of a tertiary care medical college hospital, 4 weeks following the COVID infection agreed to participate in the study. Self-developed subject data sheet and the self-reporting symptoms tool based on the WHO case report form were used for data collection. A significant number of health care workers (HCWs) had long COVID symptomatology in terms of constitutional, muscular-skeletal, respiratory, otolaryngology, and CNS symptoms. The commonly experienced symptoms were myalgia (45.3%), malaise (39%), fatigue and tiredness (69.5%), loss of taste (21.1%), loss of smell (20.3%) and night sweats (11.7%), lack of sleep (20.3%), and anxiety (12.5%). The cardiovascular and integumentary were the less affected organ systems. About one-third of the HCWs reported that symptoms like myalgia, malaise and tiredness got worse after physical activity (29.7%). Aggravation of symptoms with any form of mental activity was reported in 11.7% of the study participants. One in every ten HCWs (12.5%) had reported not being able to perform daily activities that they were doing before getting COVID-19 infection. However, all resumed their job after the recovery. Long COVID symptoms were reported by a significant number of HCWs, necessitating the need for the establishment of follow-up clinics for the care of healthcare workers.</p> Poonam Joshi Zichen Sherpa Farhad Ahamed Smita Das Mugunthan M. Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1261 1265 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230650 A case of anterior abdominal wall tuberculosis <p>A rare case of a middle-aged woman who presented to our emergency department with a huge swelling over lower part of abdomen for 3 years that was associated with continuous purulent foul-smelling discharge from multiple sites over swelling for past 2 years and all her past history was irrelevant except for her significant loss of weight for 6 months and unable to ambulate due to huge swelling for 6 months. She is known diabetes mellitus type 2 for 6 years on oral hypoglycemic drugs. On examination she had stable vital signs, mild pallor, a large globular swelling of about grossly 30×30×20 cm extending from 2 cm below umbilicus superiorly till pubic symphysis inferiorly, bilaterally extending till anterior superior iliac spine, flanks not full, multiple dilated veins over skin. Multiple foul smelling pus discharging sinuses, prominence on leg raise test and absent cough impulse, rest of the abdomen is soft and non-tender with no organomegaly and present bowel sounds. Bilateral inguinal group of lymph nodes were palpable and matted. Swelling was exclusive extra peritoneal on computed tomography (CT) scan. Excision of swelling was done up to anterior rectus raw area open wound with bilateral inguinal lymph node excision was under general anesthesia was done. Histopathology showed granuloma with caseating necrosis from lymph nodes. Anti-tuberculosis therapy intensive phase was started post operative wound was healthy, and after 6 weeks of initiation of anti-tubercular treatment wound was closed with secondary suturing.</p> <p> </p> Arpan K. Patel Ramakrishna Bezawada Mutheeswaraiah Yootla Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1277 1279 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230652 Hypertension and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review of the distribution, prevalence and its associated factors among police officers and security agents <p>Security agents and emergency responders are significant in ensuring the safety and security which lie at the heart of the prosperity of any nation, the relevance of exploring the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among these populations, especially police officers increase progressively due to the growth. In this review, it had been described that there was a high prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among police officers and other emergency responders, and their associated factors were equally explored. A total of 23 most relevant articles was included, which followed the preferred reporting for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. The general concepts and topics enclosed by PRISMA were all relevant to any systematic review, a fast systematic review of all articles published between 2013 and 2022 employing databases such as PubMed, Google scholar and other online databases was conducted. Included research covered studies involving hypertension, diabetes mellitus and its associated factors among emergency responders. 19,377 studies were collected and 23 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria, incusing cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and longitudinal, descriptive and quantitative observational studies. Studies show that prevalence was high for both variables and age, being a male, rest, body mass index (BMI), smoking and alcohol consumption were the significant associated factors among these working groups. Regular health screening and encouragement of healthy lifestyles are recommended.</p> Ehimare Adagbasa James Atolagbe Waliu Adesegun Tajudeen Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 10 3 1266 1276 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20230651