DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222017
Published: 2022-07-27

A study on the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in Gandhinagar urban PHC, Jaipur

Shubhra Bardhar, Anoop Khanna, Neha Bardhar

Abstract


Background: Hypertension is considered as an important public health issue around the world. It is associated with the development of more serious medical conditions like myocardial infarction, cardiac failure, stroke, renal disease, etc. According to the WHO, high blood pressure affects 1280 million adults aged 30 to 79 years worldwide and almost two-thirds of them come from low-middle-income countries.

Methods: An OPD-based, observational study was conducted among individuals aged 30 years or above at Gandhinagar UPHC of Jaipur city in the state of Rajasthan. Prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension were analysed. The details regarding gender, age, family history of individuals and other behavioural characteristics like tobacco, smokeless tobacco and alcohol consumption, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements were collected. The Chi-square test was applied to analyze if a statistically significant association exist between hypertension and the above-mentioned factors.

Results: This study estimated hypertension prevalence as 23.2%. The prevalence of prehypertension was estimated to be 33.2% and the prevalence of individuals with no-hypertension was 43.6%. This study also reports that obesity, consumption of alcohol, smoking and positive HTN family history were significant determinants for hypertension.

Conclusions: Overall, the results of this study show that the HTN and pre-HTN prevalence was significant in the study population. In the absence of lifestyle changes, individuals referred to as prehypertensive are at high risk of developing HTN. Early detection and timely intervention will reduce the effect of high BP thus decreasing the risk of developing CVDs, stroke, and renal impairment.


Keywords


Hypertension, High blood pressure, Prevalence, Awareness, Risk factors, Non-communicable disease

Full Text:

PDF

References


National health mission (NHM) manual for district-level functionaries. Available at: https://darpg.gov.in/ sites/default/files/NationalMission.pdf. Accessed on 20 November 2021.

National health mission (NHM). Available at: https://nhm.gov.in/images/pdf/NHM/NHM_more_information.pdf. Accessed on 20 November 2021.

National programme for prevention & control of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases & stroke (NPCDCS). Available at: https://nhm.gov.in /index1.php?lang=1&level=2&sublinkid=1048&lid= 604. Accessed on 20 November 2021.

Singh S, Shankar R, Singh GP. Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension: a cross-sectional study in urban Varanasi. Int J Hypertens. 2017;2017.

Kurjogi MM, Vanti GL, Kaulgud RS. Prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in Dharwad population: A cross-sectional study. Indian Heart J. 2021;73(6):751-3.

Gupta R, Xavier D. Hypertension: The most important non communicable disease risk factor in India. Indian Heart J. 2018;70(4):565-72.

Godara R, Mathews E, Mini GK, Thankappan KR. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults aged 30 years and above in Barmer district, Rajasthan, India. Indian Heart J. 2021;73(2):236-8.

Hypertension. Available at: https://www.who. int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hypertension. Accessed on 20 November 2021.

Ramakrishnan S, Zachariah G, Gupta K, Shivkumar Rao J, Mohanan PP, Venugopal K. Prevalence of hypertension among Indian adults: Results from the great India blood pressure survey. Indian Heart J. 2019;71(4):309-13.

Anchala R, Kannuri NK, Pant H, Khan H, Franco OH, Di Angelantonio E, et al. Hypertension in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension. J Hypertens. 2014;32(6):1170-7.

Prabhakaran D, Jeemon P, Roy A. Cardiovascular diseases in India: current epidemiology and future directions. Circulation. 2016;133(16):1605-20.

Gupta R, Gaur K, Ram CV. Emerging trends in hypertension epidemiology in India. J Human Hypertens. 2019;33(8):575-87.

Hypertension screening, diagnosis, assessment, and management of primary hypertension in adults in India. Available at: https://nhm.gov.in/images/pdf/ guidelines/nrhmguidelines/stg/Hypertension_full. pdf. Accessed on 20 November 2021.

Module for multi-purpose workers (MPW) - female/male on prevention, screening and control of common non-communicable diseases. Available at: https://main.mohfw.gov.in/sites/default/files/ ModuleCDS_2.pdf. Accessed on 20 November 2021.

Training module for medical officers for prevention, control and population level screening of hypertension, diabetes and common cancer (oral, breast & cervical). Available at: http://nrhmrajasthan. nic.in/PDF/ TrainingNCds.pdf. Accessed on 20 November 2021.

Malhotra P, Kumari S, Kumar R, Jain S, Sharma BK. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in an un-industrialised rural population of North India. J Hum Hyperten. 1999;13(7):467-72.

Jeemon P. Worldwide trends in hypertension prevalence and progress in treatment and control from 1990 to 2019: a pooled analysis of 1201 population-representative studies with 104 million participants. Lancet. 2021;398(10304):957-80.

Kumar K, Kothari R, Kothari K, Garg S, Khandelwal M, Gupta R. Prevalence of hypertension in an urban and rural area of Jaipur District. Lancet. 2013;12:120-6.

Galav A, Bhatanagar R, Meghwal S C, Jain M. Prevalence of hypertension among rural and urban population in southern Rajasthan. Natl J Community Med. 2015;6(2):174-8.

Gupta R, Guptha S, Gupta VP, Prakash H. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in the urban population of Jaipur in western India. J Hypertens. 1995;13(10):1193-200.

Ghosh S, Kumar M. Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension among persons aged 15-49 in India: a cross-sectional study. BMJ. 2019;9(12):e029714.

Hossain FB, Adhikary G, Chowdhury A, Shawon SR. Association between body mass index (BMI) and hypertension in south Asian population: evidence from nationally-representative surveys. Clin Hypertens. 2019;25:28.

Devi P, Rao M, Sigamani A, Faruqui A, Jose M, Gupta R, et al. Prevalence, risk factors and awareness of hypertension in India: a systematic review. J Hum Hyperten. 2013;27(5):281-7.

Rao PC, Venkatramana P, Annaiah P, Reddy PC. Prevalence and Predictors of hypertension in an ethnic population of South India. Anthropologist. 2013;15(2):193-7.

Kumar DV, Kawatra A, Shekhawat K, Sharma G, Sethia R, Acharya R. Prevalence of hypertension and its determinants among rural adult population of Bikaner, Rajasthan. Int J Prevent Public Health Sci. 2015;1(6):32-7.

Laxman S. A study of hypertension and its risk factors among rural population in the field practice area of Mahatma Gandhi medical college and hospital, Jaipur. J Med Sci Clin Res. 2018;23:6.

Health. Available at: https://www.wbhealth.gov.in/ NCD/contents/page/program_npcdcs. Accessed on 20 November 2021.