DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20221551

Spatial prevalence and its contextual determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in cases of C-section deliveries in India: a study based on National Family Health Survey-4, 2015-2016

Koustav Ghosh, Nilam V. Panchal, Atreyee S. Chakraborty

Abstract


Background: Delayed early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF) between 2 to 23 hours has increased 1.3 times risk of neonatal and it goes up double when it crosses more than 24 hours. Babies who were born through caesarean section (C-section) were less likely to initiate early breastfeeding as compared to normal vaginal delivery.

Methods: The present study has utilized 14774 weighted samples of C-section delivered women from National Family Health Survey-4 (NFHS-4) (2015-2016). Spatial analysis software i.e. ArcGIS 10.8 and STATA 14 including logistics regression has been utilized to show the spatial prevalence and contextual determinants of EIBF on C-section birth babies in India.

Results: In India, around 31.8% of C-section mothers breastfeed their children within one hour of delivery. The prevalence of EIBF is highest in Goa and lowest in Rajasthan. The central part of India mostly from the empowered action group (EAG) states practices a very low level of EIBF practices whereas, the north-east region represents the highest prevalence for the same. The odds of logistic regression shows that mother’s higher education (OR: 1.38), everyday mass media exposure (OR: 1.66), and initiation of postnatal care (PNC) within one hour (OR: 1.79) help to increase the practices of EIBF. On the other hand, delivery in the private hospital (OR: 0.61).

Conclusions: The study shows remarkable geographical variations in EIBF and its correlates in the country. It recommends that the public health programmes need to target the states with less practice of EIBF (i.e. EAG state or central part of India) F among C-section delivery mothers. By increasing the level of mothers’ education status, mass media exposure and early PNC care can improve the EIBF practices among C-section mothers in India.


Keywords


Early initiation of breastfeeding, Caesarean section, Spatial prevalence, Empowered action group

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization, Linkages. Infant and young child feeding: a tool for assessing national practices, policies and programmes. 2003. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42794. Accessed on 29 August 2020.

Riordan J, Wambach K. Breastfeeding and human lactation. Jones & Bartlett Learning. 2010.

DiGirolamo AM, Grummer-Strawn LM, Fein SB. Effect of maternity-care practices on breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 2008;122:S43-9.

UNICEF. Levels & Trends in Child Mortality, Estimates Developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. 2017. Available at: https://data.unicef.org/resources/levels-and-trends-in-child-mortality/. Accessed on 29 August 2020.

Panda BK, Nayak I, Mishra US. Determinant of inequality in cesarean delivery in India: A decomposition analysis. Health Care Women Int. 2020;1-16.

World Health Organization. WHO Statement on Caesarean Section Rates. Available at: http://apps. who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/161442/WHO_RHR_15.02_eng.pdf;jsessionid=5293C6A53CBDD1FA50601AB89B5FF471?sequence=1. Accessed on 29 August 2020.

Rowe-Murray HJ, Fisher JRW. Baby friendly hospital practices: cesarean section is a persistent barrier to early initiation of breastfeeding. Birth (Berkeley, Calif). 2002;29(2):124-31.

Karim F, Khan ANS, Tasnim F, Chowdhury MAK, Billah SM, Karim T. Prevalence and determinants of initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth: An analysis of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. PloS One. 2014;14(7):0220224.

Edmond K, Newton S, Hurt L, Shannon CS, Kirkwood BR, Taneja S, et al. Timing of initiation, patterns of breastfeeding, and infant survival: prospective analysis of pooled data from three randomised trials. Lancet Glob Health. 2016;4(4):e266-75.

Phukan D, Ranjan M, Dwivedi LK. Impact of timing of breastfeeding initiation on neonatal mortality in India. Int Breastfeed J. 2018;13(1):27.

Khan J, Vesel L, Bahl R, Martines JC. Timing of breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity of breastfeeding during the first month of life: effects on onatal mortality and morbidity -a systematic review and meta-analysis. Matern Child Health J. 2015;19:468-79.

Meedya S, Fahy K, Kable A. Factors that positively influence breastfeeding duration to 6 months: a literature review. Women Birth. 2010;23(4):135-45.

World Health Organization. Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: Revised, updated and expanded for integrated care. Section 1: Background and implementation. Geneva: United Nations Children’s Fund. 2009. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/ bitstream/handle/10665/43593/9789241594967_eng.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed on 29 August 2020.

Victora CG, Bahl R, Barros AJD, França GVA, Horton S, Krasevec J, et al. Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. Lancet. 2016;387(10017):475-90.

Horta BL, Bahl R, Martines JC, Victora CG. Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses. In. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 2007. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/ 43623. Accessed on 29 August 2020.

Victora CG, Horta BL, Loret de Mola C, Quevedo L, Pinheiro RT, Gigante DP, Goncalves H, Barros FC. Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: a prospective birth cohort study from Brazil. Lancet Glob Health. 2015;3(4):199-205.

Watt S, Sword W, Sheehan D, Foster G, Thabane L, Krueger P, Landy CK. The effect of delivery method on breastfeeding initiation from the The Ontario Mother and Infant Study (TOMIS) III. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2012;41(6):728-37.

Wax JR. Maternal request cesarean versus planned spontaneous vaginal delivery: maternal morbidity and short term outcomes. Semin Perinatol. 2006;30(5):247-52.

Zhou YB, Li HT, Zhu LP, Liu JM. Impact of cesarean section on placental transfusion and iron-related hematological indices in term neonates: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Placenta. 2014;35(1):1-8.

Karlström A, Lindgren H, Hildingsson I. Maternal and infant outcome after caesarean section without recorded medical indication: findings from a Swedish case-control study. BJOG. 2013;120(4):479-86.

Hobbs AJ, Mannion CA, McDonald SW, Brockway M, Tough SC. The impact of caesarean section on breastfeeding initiation, duration and difficulties in the first four months postpartum. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016;16(1):90.

Panda BK, Mishra US, Mohanty SK. Rising extent of caesarean delivery and its differential access in regions of India 2005–2016. J Public Health. 2020;28(5):595-604.

Senanayake P, O’Connor E, Ogbo FA. National and rural-urban prevalence and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in India. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):896.

Karim F, Billah SM, Chowdhury MAK, Zaka N, Manu A, Arifeen SE, Khan ANS. Initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth and its determinants among normal vaginal deliveries at primary and secondary health facilities in Bangladesh: A case-observation study. PLoS One. 2018;13(8):e0202508.

National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) 2015-16, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai. 2017. Available at: https://dhsprogram. com/pubs/pdf/FR339/FR339.pdf. Accessed on 29 August 2020.

Bandyopadhyay M. Impact of ritual pollution on lactation and breastfeeding practices in rural West Bengal, India. Int Breastfeed J. 2009;4(1):1-8.

Sharma IK, Byrne A. Early initiation of breastfeeding: a systematic literature review of factors and barriers in South Asia. Int Breastfeed J. 2016;11(1):1-12.

Jain S, Thapar RK, Gupta RK. Complete coverage and covering completely: Breast feeding and complementary feeding: Knowledge, attitude, and practices of mothers. Med J Armed Forces India. 2018;74(1):28-32.

Adhikari M, Khanal V, Karkee R, Gavidia T. Factors associated with early initiation of breastfeeding among Nepalese mothers: further analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. Int Breastfeed J. 2014;9(1):21.

Setegn T, Gerbaba M, Belachew T. Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):217.

Patel A, Badhoniya N, Khadse S, Senarath U, Agho KE, Dibley MJ; South Asia Infant Feeding Research Netwoork. Infant and young child feeding indicators and determinants of poor feeding practices in India: secondary data analysis of National Family Health Survey 2005-06. Food Nutr Bull. 2010;31(2):314-33.

Ali S, Ali SF, Imam AM, Ayub S, Billoo AG. Perception and practices of breastfeeding of infants 0-6 months in an urban and a semi-urban community in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study. J Pak Med Assoc. 2011;61(1):99-104.

Rahman M, Haque SE, Zahan S, Islam O. Noninstitutional births and newborn care practices among adolescent mothers in Bangladesh. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2011;40(3):262-73.

Afnan-Holmes H, Magoma M, John T, Levira F, Msemo G, Armstrong CE, et al. Tanzania's countdown to 2015: an analysis of two decades of progress and gaps for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health, to inform priorities for post-2015. The Lancet Global Health. 2015;3(7):e396-409.

Mangasaryan N, Martin L, Brownlee A, Ogunlade A, Rudert C, Cai X. Breastfeeding promotion, support and protection: review of six country programmes. Nutrients. 2012;4(8):990-1014.

World Health Organization. Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health: postnatal care. 2018. Available at: https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/default-source/mca-documents/policy-documents/policy-survey-reports/global-rmncah-policy-survey-2018-final.pdf?sfvrsn=b3eca23e_1. Accessed on 29 August 2020.

Rollins NC, Bhandari N, Hajeebhoy N, Horton S, Lutter CK, Martines JC, et al. Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices? The Lancet. 2016;387(10017):491-504.

Ogbo FA, Eastwood J, Page A, Arora A, McKenzie A, Jalaludin B, et al. Prevalence and determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding in the early postnatal period in Sydney, Australia. Int Breastfeed J. 2016;12(1):1-10.

Desai G, Anand A, Modi D, Shah S, Shah K, Shah A, et al. Rates, indications, and outcomes of caesarean section deliveries: A comparison of tribal and non-tribal women in Gujarat, India. PloS One. 2017;12(12):e0189260.