A systematic review on parent mediated intervention programmes for children with autism spectrum disorders in India

Nigesh Kalorath, Sukanya B. Menon, C. Jayan


The relevance of identifying effective interventions and rehabilitation of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) increases day by day due to the growth, especially in India. One strategy which has been found to be effective to meet the requirements of children and adolescents with ASD is parent-mediated programmes. However, since most studies of this kind have been undertaken in high-income nations, the present research will explore the effect of parent-mediated intervention programmes in India, a country with a high incidence of developmental disabilities. A fast systematic review employing databases such as PUBMED, psycINFO, Medline, Web of science, and Google Scholar was conducted to assess Indian research on PMI for children with ASD published before February 2022. Studies that were included in the review covered research involving those between the ages of 1 and 18 who were diagnosed with ASD. The 354 research papers were collected, and 11 studies satisfied the criteria for inclusion, including randomised controlled trials and pre-and post-intervention studies. The current research reviewed the articles in terms of the efficacy of parent-mediated interventions (PMI) and their feasibility and acceptability. Studies show that PMI helps improve interactions between parents and children as well as children's social, communication, motor, and cognitive skills. They also help parents learn more about how to teach their children and improve their children's language and academic skills. The overall conclusion of the systematic review was that PMI helps improve parent and child skills.


ASD, PMI program, Systematic review, Feasibility, Receptivity, Potential contents

Full Text:



Dawson G, Osterling J. 14 Early Intervention in Autism. The effectiveness of early intervention. 1997: 307.

Rogers SJ, Vismara LA. Evidence-based comprehensive treatments for early autism. J Clin Child Adolescent Psychol. 2008;37(1):8-38.

Smith T. Outcome of early intervention for children with autism. Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 1999;6(1):33.

Handleman JS, Harris SL, editors. Preschool education programs for children with autism. Austin, TX: Pro-ed. 2001.

Schopler E, Mesibov GB, Hearsey K. Structured teaching in the TEACCH system. In Learning and cognition in autism. Springer, Boston, MA. 1995;243-68.

Lord C, Risi S, Lambrecht L, Cook EH, Leventhal BL, DiLavore PC, Pickles A, Rutter M. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. J Autism and Developmental Disord. 2000;30(3):205-23.

Bitta M, Kariuki SM, Abubakar A, Newton CR. Burden of neurodevelopmental disorders in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Wellcome open Res. 2017;2.

Baxter AJ, Brugha TS, Erskine HE, Scheurer RW, Vos T, Scott JG. The epidemiology and global burden of autism spectrum disorders. Psycholog Med. 2015;45(3):601-13.

Hume K, Bellini S, Pratt C. The usage and perceived outcomes of early intervention and early childhood programs for young children with autism spectrum disorder. Topics Early Childhood Special Education. 2005;25(4):195-207.

Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, Group P. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS. 2009.

Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Internal Med. 2009;151(4):264-9.

American Psychiatric Association DS, American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Washington, DC: American psychiatric association. 2013.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM 4 TR (Text Revision). American Psychiatric Association. 2003.

World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. World Health Organization. 1992. Available at: Accessed on 3 March 2022.

Juneja M, Mukherjee SB, Sharma S, Jain R, Das B, Sabu P. Evaluation of a parent-based behavioral intervention program for children with autism in a low-resource setting. J Pediatr Neurosc. 2012;7(1):16.

Nair MK, Russell PS, George B, Prasanna GL, Bhaskaran D, Leena ML et al. CDC Kerala 9: Effectiveness of low intensity home based early intervention for autism spectrum disorder in India. Indian J Pediatr. 2014;81(2):115-9.

Brezis RS, Weisner TS, Daley TC, Singhal N, Barua M, Chollera SP. Parenting a child with autism in India: Narratives before and after a parent–child intervention program. Culture Med Psychiatry. 2015;39(2):277-98.

Louis PT, Kumar N. Does Father Involvement Influence the Affect, Language Acquisition, Social Engagement and Behavior in Young Autistic Children? An Early Intervention Study. J Special Educ Rehabilitation. 2015;16.

Patra S, Arun P, Chavan BS. Impact of psychoeducation intervention module on parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary study. J Neurosci Rural Practice. 2015;6(04):529-35.

Krishnan R, Nesh MT, Russell PS, Russell S, Mammen P. The effectiveness of an intensive, parent mediated, multi-component, early intervention for children with autism. J Indian Asso Child Adolescent Mental Health. 2016;12(3):230-52.

Rahman A, Divan G, Hamdani SU, Vajaratkar V, Taylor C, Leadbitter K et al. Effectiveness of the parent-mediated intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder in south Asia in India and Pakistan (PASS): a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3(2):128-36.

Divan G, Vajaratkar V, Cardozo P, Huzurbazar S, Verma M, Howarth E et al. The feasibility and effectiveness of PASS Plus, a lay health worker delivered comprehensive intervention for autism spectrum disorders: pilot RCT in a rural low- and middle-income country setting. Autism Res. 2019;12(2):328-39.

Padmanabha H, Singhi P, Sahu JK, Malhi P. Home-based sensory interventions in children with autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Indian J Pediatr. 2019;86(1):18-25.

Manohar H, Kandasamy P, Chandrasekaran V, Rajkumar RP. Brief parent-mediated intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder: A feasibility study from South India. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2019;49(8):3146-58.

Sengupta K, Mahadik S, Kapoor G. Glocalizing project ImPACT: Feasibility, acceptability and preliminary outcomes of a parent-mediated social communication intervention for autism adapted to the Indian context. Res Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2020;76:101585.

Sengupta K, Javeri A, Mascarenhas C, Khaparde O, Mahadik S. Feasibility and acceptability of a synchronous online parent-mediated early intervention for children with autism in a low resource setting during covid-19 pandemic. Int J Disability, Development Education. 2021;1-7.

Sengupta K, Shah H, Ghosh S, Sanghvi D, Mahadik S, Dani A et al. World Health Organisation-Caregiver Skills Training (WHO-CST) Program: Feasibility of Delivery by Non-Specialist Providers in Real-world Urban Settings in India. J Autism Developmental Disorders. 2021:1-8.

Russell PS, John JK, Lakshmanan J, Russell S, Lakshmidevi KM. Family intervention and acquisition of adaptive behaviour among intellectually disabled children. J Learning Disabilities. 2004;8(4):383-95.

Koly KN, Martin-Herz SP, Islam MS, Sharmin N, Blencowe H, Naheed A. Parent mediated intervention programmes for children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders in South Asia: A systematic review. PloS one. 2021;16(3):e0247432.