The impact of self-efficacy on physical activity in the elderly

Citra Puspa Juwita, Rita Damayanti


Background: Sufficient physical activity is a lifestyle that must become a habit in the elderly so that it can reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases. This study aims to determine the correlation self-efficacy with physical activity in the elderly.

Methods: The research study design was cross sectional on 106 elderly people aged >60 years in DKI Jakarta, Indonesia. Collecting data by interview using the global physical activity questioner (GPAQ) and the self-efficacy for exercise scale (SEE). Data were analyzed descriptively and analytically; the relationship was obtained if p<0.05.

Results: Most of the respondents have high physical activity (58%), 29% have medium physical activity, and 13% have low physical activity. There is a correlation between self-efficacy and physical activity (r=0.60, p=0.000). In addition, there is also a correlation between comorbidities (r=0.33, p=0.018) and occupation (r=0.631, p=0.000) with physical activity.

Conclusions: Sufficient physical activity influenced by self-efficacy, occupation, and comorbidities as much as 40% and 60% explained by others. 


Self-efficacy, Physical activity, The elderly, Global physical activity questioner, Comorbid

Full Text:



Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: An analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet. 2012;380(9838):219-29.

Strain T, Brage S, Sharp SJ. Use of the prevented fraction for the population to determine deaths averted by existing prevalence of physical activity: a descriptive study. Lancet Glob Heal. 2020;8(7):e920-30.

Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1·9 million participants. Lancet Glob Heal. 2018;6(10):e1077-86.

Kemenkes RI. Laporan_Nasional_RKD2018_ FINAL.Pdf. 2019. Available at: http://labdata. Accessed on 12 March 2022.

Ministry of Health RI. Basic Health Research (Riskesdas), 2018. Available at: https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcent. Accessed on 12 March 2022.

BPS. Older Population Statistics 2019. Agency Center for Statistics, 2019. Available at: Accessed on 12 March 2022.

Hakim AR, Wang ST, Widiantoro FX, Hannan M, Wang CJ, Fetzer SJ. The Indonesian Version of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale: Cross-cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Testing. Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci). 2020;14(5):300-5.

Bandura A. Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. 2009;4:307-37.

Degerstedt Å, Alinaghizadeh H, Thorstensson CA, Olsson CB. High self-efficacy-A predictor of reduced pain and higher levels of physical activity among patients with osteoarthritis: An observational study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2020;21(1):1-14.

Daniali S, Darani F, Eslami A, Mazaheri M. Relationship between Self-efficacy and Physical Activity, Medication Adherence in Chronic Disease Patients. Adv Biomed Res. 2017;6(1):63.

Huang J, Zou Y, Huang W. Factors associated with physical activity in elderly nursing home residents: a path analysis. BMC Geriatr. 2020;20(1):1-9.

Bhandari P, Paswan B. Lifestyle Behaviours and Mental Health Outcomes of Elderly: Modification of Socio-Economic and Physical Health Effects. Ageing Int. 2021;46(1):35-69.

Ibrahim AA, AI-Lami F, Al-Rudainy R, Khader YS. Mental Disorders Among Elderly People in Baghdad, Iraq, 2017. Inq (United States). 2019;56.

Zhou L, Wang G, Jia C, Ma Z. Being left-behind, mental disorder, and elderly suicide in rural China: A case-control psychological autopsy study. Psychol Med. 2018;49(3):458-64.

Li W, Wang D, Wu C, Shi O, Zhou Y, Lu Z. The effect of body mass index and physical activity on hypertension among Chinese middle-aged and older population. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):1-8.

You Y, Teng W, Wang J. Hypertension and physical activity in middle-aged and older adults in China. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):1-9.

Oh HS. Opposite effects of work-related physical activity and leisure-time physical activity on the risk of diabetes in korean adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(16):1-14.

Chang CH, Kuo CP, Huang CN, Hwang SL, Liao WC, Lee MC. Habitual physical activity and diabetes control in young and older adults with type II diabetes: A longitudinal correlational study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(3):1-12.

Castonguay A, Miquelon P. Motivational profiles for physical activity among adults with type 2 diabetes and their relationships with physical activity behavior. Heal Psychol Behav Med. 2017;5(1):110-28.

Balla Abdalla TH, Rutkofsky IH, Syeda JN, Saghir Z, Muhammad AS. Occupational Physical Activity in Young Adults and Stroke: Was It Due to My Job? Cureus. 2018;10(8).

Kanai M, Izawa KP, Kubo H. Association of perceived built environment attributes with objectively measured physical activity in community-dwelling ambulatory patients with stroke. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(20):1-9.

McKevitt S, Healey E, Jinks C, Rathod-Mistry T, Quicke J. The association between comorbidity and physical activity levels in people with osteoarthritis: Secondary analysis from two randomised controlled trials. Osteoarthr Cartil Open. 2020;2(2):100057.

Ahangar AA, Khoshmanzar H, Heidari B. Prevalence and the Determinants of Physical Activity in an Elderly Cohort of 60 years and more. A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study. Ageing Int. 2019;44(4):399-410.

Hanif AAM, Hasan M, Khan MSA. Prevalence and associated factors of insufficient physical activity among elderly people in Bangladesh: A nationally representative cross-sectional study. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2021;7(3):1-14.

Sadrollahi A, Hosseinian M, Alavi NM, Khalili Z, Esalatmanesh S. Physical activity patterns in the elderly kashan population. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016;18(6).

Winsor R. Evaluation of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Program (5th Edition). Oxford University. 2015.

Gharaveis A. A systematic framework for understanding environmental design influences on physical activity in the elderly population: A review of literature. Facilities. 2020;38(9-10):625-49.

Wang S, Ma W, Wang SM, Yi X. Regular physical activities and related factors among middle-aged and older adults in Jinan, China: A cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(19).

Ethisan P, Somrongthong R, Ahmed J, Kumar R, Chapman RS. Factors related to physical activity among the elderly population in rural Thailand. J Prim Care Community Heal. 2017;8(2):71-6.