A community-based study on maternal mortality in Bongaigaon district, Assam

Anand Sharma, M. S. Lakshmi Priya


Background: Maternal mortality is an important indicator for measuring the health care provided to the women by any society. India has a high maternal mortality ratio and within India the state of Assam has the highest MMR in the country.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during January 2021 till December 2021 in Bongaigaon district. The study included 10 maternal deaths occurred in Bongaigaon District in a year. The information regarding socio demographic, clinical information and reproductive parameters was collected from the verbal autopsy and the results were analyzed by using percentage.

Results: Out of 13,124 total deliveries, maternal mortality was found to be 76 per 1,00,000 live births. The leading cause for maternal death is eclampsia (30.0%) followed by haemorrhage (20.0%), PIH (20.0%), heart failure (10.0%), anemia (10.0%), placental abruption with haemorrhage (10.0%).

Conclusions: Teenage pregnancy is one the major concern in maternal and child health. There is a wide scope for improvement as a large proportion of the observed deaths were preventable.  


Maternal death, Teenage pregnancy, Bongaigaon

Full Text:



United Nations. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, 2016. Available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.orgsforming our world. Accessed on 12 March 2022.

Sachs JD. From millennium development goals to sustainable development goals. Lancet. 2012;379(9832):2206-11.

Griggs D, Smith M, Gaffney O, Rockström J, Ohman MC, Shyamsundar P, et al. Policy: Sustainable development goals for people and planet. Nature. 2013;495(7441):305-7.

Griggs D, Stafford SM, Rockström J. An integrated framework for sustainable development goals. Ecol Soc. 2014;19:49.

WHO. Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health, 2016-2030, 2016. Available at: Accessed on 12 March 2022.

Montgomery AL, Ram U, Kumar R, Jha P, Million Death Study Collaborators. Maternal mortality in India: causes and healthcare service use based on a nationally representative survey. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e83331.

The Economic Times. India registers 26.9 per cent decline in Maternal Mortality Rate since 2013: SRS Bulletin, 2019. Available at: https://economictimes. Accessed on 12 March 2022.

PIB. Steps Taken to Reduce IMR and MMR, 2015. Available at: Accessed on 12 March 2022.

WHO. ICD-11 (the 11th revision of the ICD) was adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2019 and comes into effect on 1 January 2022, 2022. Available at: Accessed on 12 March 2022.

Wikipedia. Sustainable Development Goal 3, 2015. Available at: Accessed on 12 March 2022.

SRS Bulletin. Registrar General of India Sample registration system. Special Bulletin on maternal mortality in India 2014-16 sample registration system, 2018. Available at: https://censusindia. Accessed on 12 March 2022.

Chatterjee P. The health system in India: the underserved majority. Lancet. 2017;390(10111):2426-7.

Registrar Central. Annual health survey report a report on core and vital health indicators, 2021. Available at: Accessed on 12 March 2022.

Cham M, Sundby J, Vangen S. Maternal mortality in the rural Gambia, a qualitative study on access to emergency obstetric care. Reprod Health. 2005;2(1):3.

Goli S, Jaleel AC. What is the cause of the decline in maternal mortality in India? Evidence from time series and cross-sectional analyses. J Biosoc Sci. 2014;46(3):351-65.

Kuruvilla S, Schweitzer J, Bishai D, Chowdhury S, Caramani D, Frost L, et al. Success factors for reducing maternal and child mortality. Bull World Health Organ. 2014;92(7):533-44.

Bhatia JC. Levels and causes of maternal mortality in southern India. Stud Fam Plann. 1993;24(5):310-8.

González D, Portiño M, Ruiz MT. Knowledge gaps in scientific literature on maternal mortality: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84(11):903-9.

Vora KS, Mavalankar DV, Ramani KV, Upadhyaya M, Sharma B, Iyengar S, et al. Maternal health situation in India: a case study. J Health Popul Nutr. 2009;27(2):184-201.

Ministry of Home Affairs. Report Annual Health Survey Factsheet Assam. New Delhi, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India 2012-13, 2013. Available at: https://www. Accessed on 12 March 2022.

Ministry of Home Affairs. Sample Registration System (SRS) Bulletins, 2021. Available at: Accessed on 12 March 2022.

Amitava P, Prasanta R, Samir H, Mondal TK. Review of changing trends in maternal mortality in a rural medical college in West Bengal. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2005;55:521-4.

Kaur D, Kaur V, Yuel VI. Alarmingly high maternal mortality in 21st century. JK Sci. 2007;9(3):123-6.

Purandare N, Chandock AS, Upadhya S, Sanjanwala SM, Saraogi RM. Maternal mortality at a referral centre: a five year study. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2007; 57(3):248-50.

Murthy BK, Murthy MB, Prabhu PM. Maternal Mortality in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A 10-year Review. Int J Prev Med. 2013;4(1):105-9.

Fernandes S, Prabhu P, Chunha PD. Maternal Mortality at a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India: 10 years Retrospective Study. Int J Med Health Sci. 2015;4(3):327-31.

Yadav K, Namdeo A, Bhargava M. A Retrospective and Prospective Study of Maternal Mortality in A Rural Tertiary Care Hospital Of Central India. Indian J Community Health. 2013;25(1):16-21.

Bangal VB, Giri PA, Garg R. Maternal Mortality at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of Rural India: A Retrospective Study. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011;2(4):1043-6.

Taye MK, Alam A, Rakshita. Retrospective evaluation of causes and social correlates of maternal deaths at Assam Medical College and Hospital Dibrugarh, Assam, India. J Evolution Med Dent Sci. 2016;5(5):275-9.

Hazarika L, Phukan P, Sharma A, Das NK. Maternal mortality at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Dibrugarh district, Assam: a retrospective study. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017;4(9):3342-6.

Zaman S, Begum AA. Maternal mortality at a rural medical college of Assam: a retrospective study. J Obstet Gynaecol Barpeta. 2014;1(1):46-51.

Doddamani U, Rampure N, Pooja K. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2018;7(6):2446-8.

Bhadra B, Choudhury RR, Sarkar D, Sarkar S. An epidemiological study of mortality among mothers admitted in a rural tertiary hospital of West Bengal. J Family Med Prim Care. 2017; 6:270-3.