The hygienic and microbial status of Sudanese banknotes, Khartoum state, Sudan


  • Mohanad Hassan Mohamed Honua Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, Faculty of Public and Environmental Health, University of Khartoum / Khartoum



Candida albicans, Banknotes handlers, E.coli, Sudan


Background: Banknotes are one of the items most frequently circulating from hand to hand, and microbial contaminants of banknote may be transmitted directly, through hand-to-hand contact, or indirectly, via food or other inanimate objects. This study was designed to assess the banknotes handlers hygiene and microbial (Bacteria, Yeasts and Moulds) contamination of Sudanese banknotes in Khartoum state, Sudan.

Methods: Fifty samples of Sudanese banknotes were collected randomly from handlers through (March - April / 2015). These samples were microbiologically tested for quantify bacteria, identification of bacteria and fungi (Yeasts and Moulds) by using biochemical tests for bacteria and phenotypical characteristics for fungi.

Results: The study showed that the mean of total viable count (CFU/cm2) of bacteria contaminated of banknotes between ( 4.5 – 8.3 ) x 105 CFU/cm2 ,  the study showed 12 different types of bacteria and 5 types of fungi was identified from banknotes with different percentages. From statistically analyzed of 50 questionnaires there were; 76% of handlers had knowledge about contaminated banknotes as being a source of infection; 94% educated handlers at different levels; 64% of the handlers washed hands after using a toilets and before dealing with banknotes again.

Conclusions: Sudanese banknotes were contaminated with different bacteria, yeast and moulds. unhygienically handled. The contamination rate was higher in lower denominations than in higher ones.

Author Biography

Mohanad Hassan Mohamed Honua, Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, Faculty of Public and Environmental Health, University of Khartoum / Khartoum

U of K / department of Food Hygiene and Safety.


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How to Cite

Honua, M. H. M. (2017). The hygienic and microbial status of Sudanese banknotes, Khartoum state, Sudan. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 4(4), 923–927.



Original Research Articles