Compliance to infection prevention and control practices for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 transmission at tertiary care hospital in North Mumbai

Kinjal Patel, Suraj Purusottaman, Trupti Carval, Lekhan Narvekar


Background: Infection control practices played a major role in prevention of SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare settings. Aim of the study was to know the compliance to infection control and prevention practices by healthcare workers in COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 spread in the hospital.

Methods: An observational study was conducted at tertiary care hospital for a period of one month. All healthcare workers involved in patient care of COVID-19 and non COVID-19 was observed for their infection control practices. Areas were divided in two category, intensive care unit and indoor wards for audit. Environmental samples of various surfaces from intensive care unit and wards were taken and analyzed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Overall compliance to infection prevention practices were improved during pandemic. Hand hygiene compliance in intensive care unit and indoor wards of COVID-19 unit were 78.66% and 74.36% whilst in non COVID-19 units was 72.47% and 62.31% respectively. Compliance to revised biomedical waste (BMW) policy at COVID-19 unit were 85.20% and 71.49% in intensive care unit and ward respectively. However, at non COVID-19 unit, it was 65.22% and 57.60%. Nursing station and doffing area of ICU at non-COVID-19 unit showed presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus. While all samples collected from COVID-19 unit were negative.

Conclusions: Infection prevention and control practices play a key role to curtail transmission of infection. Awareness among healthcare workers, hospital environment, and usage of personal protective equipment should be optimized even at non COVID-19 facility.


COVID-19, Infection prevention, SARS-CoV-2, Surface cleaning

Full Text:



Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19-19) outbreak. J Autoimmun. 2020;102433.

Seto WH, Tsang D, Yung RW. Effectiveness of precautions against droplets and contact in prevention of nosocomial transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Lancet. 2003;361:1519-20.

Varia M, Wilson S, Sarwal S. Investigation of a nosocomial outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Toronto, Canada. CMAJ. 2003; 169:285-92.

McDonald LC, Simor AE, Su I-J. SARS in healthcare facilities, Toronto and Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:777-81.

Simor AE, Su I-J. SARS in healthcare facilities, Toronto and Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;5:752-9.

Wang D, Shang D, Wang W. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020;323:1061-9.

Strategies of personal protective equipment to prevent self-contamination in the health care setting. Am J Infect Control. 2019;47:534-9.

Infection control in healthcare personnel: infrastructure and routine practices for occupational infection prevention and control services. 2019. Available at: guide lines/healthcare-personnel/index.html. Accessed on 20 March 2021.

Forest and Climate Change, Government of India. Biomedical Waste Management Rules-2016. Available at: http://www. indiaenvironmentportal.,%20 2016.pdf. Accessed on 20 March 2021.

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India. Biomedical Waste Management (Amendment) Rules-2018. Available at: http://www. Accessed on 20 March 2021.

Guideline for quarantine facilities COVID-19. New Delhi; 2020. Available at: https:// ReadData/l892s/90542653311584546120. Accessed on 20 March 2021.

Rational use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Available at: rational-use-of-personal-protective-equipment-for-coronavirus-disease-(covid-19)-and-considerations-during-severe-shortages. Accessed on 20 March 2021.

Covid-419 infection. Available at: https://apps.who. int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331498/ WHO-2019-nCoV-IPCPPE_use-2020.2-eng.pdf. Accessed on 20 March 2021.

Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19-19): Guidelines on Rational Use of Personal Protective Equipment. Available at: https://www.mohfw. ProtectiveEquipment. Accessed on 20 March 2021.

Tomas ME, Kundrapu S, Thota P. Contamination of health care personnel during removal of personal protective equipment. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175: 1904-10.

Kang J, O'Donnell JM, Colaianne B. Use of personal protective equipment among health care personnel: results of clinical observations and simulations. Am J Infect Contro.l 2017;45:17-23.

Cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in the context of COVID-19.Interim Guidance. Available at: cleaning-and-disinfection-of-environmental-surfaces-inthe-context-of-covid-19. Accessed on 20 March 2021.

Dancer SJ. The role of environmental cleaning in the control of hospital acquired infection. J Hosp Infect. 2009;73:378-85.