DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20213781

Impact of social isolation during COVID-19 on psychological well-being of the elderly: an Indian survey-based study

Rajni Sharma, Krishan Kumar, Lokesh Saini, Deepanshu Dhiman, Babita Ghai, Vikas Suri, Subh Mohan Singh, Ritin Mohendra, Pooja Tyagi, Vijay Prasad Barre, Nitin Gupta

Abstract


Background: Since the onset of COVID-19 pandemic the elderly population has started experiencing higher levels of anxiety both because of fear of contracting infection and due to restricted social life. Study was done to assess impact of lockdown on mental health of elderly.

Methods: This was a retrospective and observational study. 106 participants were enrolled aged above 60 years. A Google survey form was sent to the participants for filling, accompanied by sessions with a clinical psychologist. The socio-demographic data and various psychological parameters were assessed.

Results: Depression was most commonly reported (39.6%). Global satisfaction had a significant and positive correlation with both social security index (p=0.004) and social network scale (p=0.000).

Conclusions: The prevalence of anxiety, stress and depression increased during lockdown. Overall satisfaction with life was reduced. Psychological counselling and support should be readily available to elderly. The problem associated with social isolation and lockdown may seem to be acute but can have worse psychological outcomes in long term.

 


Keywords


COVID-19, Elderly, Emotional distress, Impact, Pandemic

Full Text:

PDF

References


Lai CC, Shih TP, Koc WC, Tang HJ, Hsueh PR. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19): the epidemic and the challenges. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;55(3):105924.

Gerst-Emerson K, Jayawardhana J. Loneliness as a public health issue: the impact of loneliness on health care utilization among older adults. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(5):1013-9.

Clapp JD, Beck JG. Treatment of PTSD in older adults: Do cognitive-behavioral interventions remain viable?. Cognit Behavior Pract. 2012;19(1):126-35.

Cuijpers P, Beekman AT, Reynolds CF. Preventing depression: a global priority. JAMA. 2012;307(10):1033-4.

Elvish R, Lever SJ, Johnstone J, Cawley R, Keady J(2013). Psychological interventions for careers of people with dementia: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Counsel Psychother Res. 2013;13(2):106-25.

Kavoor AR. COVID-19 in people with mental illness: challenges and vulnerabilities. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;51:102051.

Aylaz R, Akturk U, Erci B, Ozturk H, Aslan H. Relationship between depression and loneliness in elderly and examination of influential factors. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012;55(3):548-54.

Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF. Manual for the depression anxiety and stress scales. 2nd ed. Sydney: Psychology Foundation; 1995.

Gierveld JD, Tilburg TV. A 6-item scale for overall, emotional, and social loneliness: Confirmatory tests on survey data. Res Aging. 2006;28(5):582-98.

Lubben J. Assessing social networks among elderly populations. Fam Commun Health. 1988;11(3):42-52.

Lubben J, Blozik E, Gillmann G, IIiffe S, vonRenteln KW, Beck JC, et al. (2006). Performance of an abbreviated version of the Lubben social network scale among three european community-dwelling older adult populations. Gerontologist. 2006;46(4):503-13.

Diener E, Emmons RA, Larsen RJ, Griffin S. The satisfaction with life scale. J Personal Assess. 1985;49(1):71-5.

Banerjee D. The impact of COVID‐19 pandemic on elderly mental health. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2020;35(12):1466-7.

Mehra A, Rani S, Sahoo S, Parveen S, Singh AP, Chakrabarti S, et al. (2020). A crisis for elderly with mental disorders: relapse of symptoms due to heightened anxiety due to COVID-19. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;51:102114.

Geiger PJ, Boggero IA, Brake CA, Caldera CA, Combs HL, Peters JR, et al. Mindfulness-based interventions for older adults: a review of the effects on physical and emotional well-being. Mindfulness. 2016;7(2):296-307.

Meng H, Xu Y, Dai J, Zhang Y, Liu B, Yang H. Analyze the psychological impact of COVID-19 among the elderly population in China and make corresponding suggestions. Psychiatry Res. 2020;289:112983.

Verma S, Mishra A. Depression, anxiety, and stress and socio-demographic correlates among general Indian public during COVID-19. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2020;66(8):756-62.

Sepúlveda-Loyola W, Rodríguez-Sánchez I, Ganz PPF, Torralba R, DVO, et al. Impact of social isolation due to COVID-19 on health in older people: mental and physical effects and recommendations. J Nutr Health Aging. 2020:1-10.

Killgore WDS, Cloonan SA, Taylor EC, Miller MA, Dailey NS. Three months of loneliness during the COVID-19 lockdown. Psychiatry Res. 2020;17(293):113392.

Pavot W, Diener E. Review of the satisfaction with life scale. In: Diener E, eds. Assessing Well-Being. Dordrecht: Springer; 2009 .

Ghazwin MY, Kavian M, Ahmadloo M, Jarchi A, Javadi SG, Latifi S, et al. The association between life satisfaction and the extent of depression, anxiety and stress among iranian nurses: a multicenter survey. Iran J Psychiatry. 2016;11(2):120-7.

Guneya S, Kalafatb T, Boysan M. (2010). Dimensions of mental health: life satisfaction, anxiety and depression: a preventive mental health study in Ankara University students population. Procedia Soc Behaviour Sci. 2010;2(2):1210-3.

Ammar A, Chtourou H, Boukhris O, Trabelsi K, Masmoudi L, Brach M, et al. COVID-19 home confinement negatively impacts social participation and life satisfaction: a worldwide multicenter study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(17):6237.

Yu H, Li M, Li Z, Xiang W, Yuan Y, Liu Y, et al. Coping style, social support and psychological distress in the general Chinese population in the early stages of the COVID-19 epidemic. BMC Psychiatry. 2020;20(1):426.

Vahia VN, Shah AB. COVID-19 pandemic and mental healthcare of older adults in India. Int Psychogeriatr. 2020;32(10):1125-7.