DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20212354

India’s COVID-19 vaccination programme: challenges and solutions

Deodatt M. Suryawanshi, Raghuram Venugopal, Suguna Anbazhagan, Divya Rajseharan, Gayathri Kumar

Abstract


Following January 2020, the SARS-COV-2 spread worldwide, ravaging health systems and causing widespread disruptions in the economic and social spheres. Successive waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in different countries concluded that the fight against the virus will be prolonged. Countries including India tried to reduce the spread of SARS-COV-2 by inducing restrictions on population mobility, high testing rates and dynamic algorithmic management but vaccination remained the only definitive answer against SARS COV-2. Though India started its vaccination program in a phased manner as early as January 2021, the second covid wave thwarted its gains with Indian facing a triple whammy of high incident cases, overburdened health infrastructure and inelastic vaccine supplies. In this review, we examined the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of India's vaccination programme and also suggest solutions to augment its strengths, manage its weakness, consolidate on opportunities and neutralise threats with effective measures of priority vaccination in high-risk districts, war footing immunisation, emergency use authorisation of vaccines, expanding vaccination programme to include children above 12 years and countering vaccine hesitancy with fact and reason. The review concluded that by strategic immunisation of high priority/high-risk districts the upcoming third wave can be thwarted if not completely prevented at a lower economic and social cost.

 


Keywords


Vaccination, India, SWOT, SARS COV-2, COVID-19, Challenges

Full Text:

PDF

References


COVID 19 vaccines-operations guidelines. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Government of India updated as of 28/12/2020: Delhi; 2020. Available at https://covid19.india.gov.in/document-category /ministry-of-health-and-family-welfare/page/15/. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

National. Fact sheet: The weapon that will end the war: first coronavirus vaccine shots given outside trials in U. S. Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2020/12/14/first-covid-vaccines-new-york/. Accessed on 11 May 2021.

BBC News. Fact sheet: COVID-19 vaccine: first-person receives Pfizer jab in the UK, 2020. Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-55227325 . Accessed on 11 May 2021.

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Fact sheet: Cumulative coverage report of COVID-19 vaccination, government of India, 2021. Available at: https://www.mohfw.gov.in/. Accessed on 11 May 2021.

COVID-19 Vaccine communication strategy. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India updated 25/03/2021: Delhi;2021. Available at https://www.mohfw.gov.in .Accessed on 21st May 2021

The Economic Times. Fact sheet: Short of shots: where does India stand currently on vaccine supply? Available at: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/healthcare/biotech/pharmaceuticals/short-of-shots-where-does-india-stand-currently-on-vaccine-supply/articleshow/82540241.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst. Accessed on 11 May 2021.

The Economic Times. Fact sheet: India's vaccinations plummet as coronavirus infections soar, 2021. Available at: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/india/indias-vaccinations-plummet-as-coronavirus-infectionssoar/articleshow/82373922.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

BBC News. Fact sheet: India coronavirus: over-18s vaccination drive hit by shortages, 2021. Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-56345591. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

Business Today. Fact sheet: COVID-19 vaccination: at the current rate, India will take 10.8 years to vaccinate 70% population, 2021. Available at: https://www.businesstoday.in/coronavirus/covid-19-vaccination-current-rate-india-take-12-years-vaccinate-70pc-population/story/433737.html. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

The Growth Pipeline Company. Fact sheet: Frost and Sullivan highlights current status and key challenges in COVID-19 vaccine logistics in India. Available at: https://ww2.frost.com/frost-perspectives/frost-sullivan-highlights-current-status-and-key-challenges-in-covid-19-vaccine-logistics-in-india/. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

National Health Profile 2019. Central Bureau Of Health Intelligence Dghs. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Delhi: 2021, P.231. Available at http://www.cbhidghs.nic.in/showfile.php?lid=1147 .Accessed on 21st May 2021

Mint. Fact sheet: India's vaccine distribution challenge, explained in five charts, 2020. Available at: https://www.livemint.com/news/india/india-s-vaccine-distribution-challenge-explained-in-five-charts-11607106132744.html. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

Choksi M, Patil B, Khanna R, Neogi SB, Sharma J, Paul VK, et al. Health systems in India. J Perinatol. 2016;36:9-12.

COVID19-India. Fact sheet: A volunteer-driven, crowd-sourced database for COVID-19 stats and patient tracing in India. Available at: https://www.covid19india.org/. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

National Herald. Fact sheet: State-owned vaccine manufacturers sit idle as India scours for jabs: Report, 2021. Available at: https://www.nationalheraldindia.com/india/state-owned-vaccine-manufacturers-sit-idle-as-india-scours-for-jabs-report. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

Daily. Fact sheet: How political interference, corruption and outdated procedures have crippled India's bureaucracy, 2018. Available at: https://www.dailyo.in/politics/indian-bureaucracy-babus-corruption-political-interference-narendra-modi/story/1/26779.html. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

Business Line. Fact sheet: The toss-up between life and livelihood, 2020. Available at: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/the-toss-up-between-life-and-livelihood/article31850978.ece. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

India Today. Fact sheet: Covid second wave to end in July, third wave after 6 months: Expert panel, 2021. Available at: https://www.indiatoday.in/coronavirus-outbreak/story/covid-second-wave-end-july-third-wave-six-months-govt-panel-1804512-2021-05-19. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

MacDonald NE, SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy. Definition, scope and determinants. Vaccine. 2015;33(34):4161-4.

Dubé E, Laberge C, Guay M, Bramadat P, Roy R, Bettinger J. Vaccine hesitancy: an overview. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013;9(8):1763-73.

Census, 2011. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs. Available at https://www.prsindia.org/theprsblog/ migration-india-and-impact-lockdown-migrants#_edn1.Acessed on 21st May 2021

India Today. Fact sheet: Covid appropriate behaviour not being followed in 50 most-affected districts in 3 states Govt. Available at: https://www.indiatoday.in/coronavirus-outbreak/story/covid-appropriate-behaviour-not-being-followed-in-50-most-affected-districts-in-3-states-govt-1789823-2021-04-1. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

National Geographic. Fact sheet: This double mutant variant is adding fuel to India's COVID-19 crisis, 2021. Available at: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/this-double-mutant-variant-is-adding-fuel-to-indias-covid-19-crisis. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

India Today. Fact sheet: WHO assigns labels to covid variants, strain first found in India to be called Delta, 2021. Available at: https://www.indiatoday.in/coronavirus-outbreak/story/who-names-labels-mutant-strains-corona-india-covid-strain-delta-1809235-2021-05-31. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

WHO. Fact sheet: Role of COVAX, 2021. Available at: https://www.who.int/initiatives/act-accelerator/ covax. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

Devex. Fact sheet: Is COVAX part of the problem or the solution? 2021. Available at: https://www.devex.com/news/is-covax-part-of-the-problem-or-the-solution-99334. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

Ministry of External Affairs. Fact sheet: Vaccine Maitri, 2021. Available at: https://www.mea. gov.in/vaccine-supply.htm. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

Yin H, Sun T, Yao L, Jiao Y, Ma L, Lin L, et al. Association between population density and infection rate suggests the importance of social distancing and travel restriction in reducing the COVID-19 pandemic. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021:1-7.

Suryawanshi D, Venugopal R, Goyal R. Factors influencing COVID-19 case burden and fatality rates findings from secondary data analysis of major urban agglomerations in India. Int J Commun Med Pub Health. 2020;7(8):3284-92.

Jo W, Chang D, You M, Ghim G. A social network analysis of the spread of COVID-19 in South Korea and policy implications. Sci Rep. 2021;11:8581.

Kartal MT, Depren O, Depren SK. The relationship between mobility and COVID-19 pandemic: Daily evidence from an emerging country by causality analysis. Transport Res Interdisciplin Perspect. 2021;10:100366.

Chu IY, Alam P, Larson HJ, Lin L. Social consequences of mass quarantine during epidemics: a systematic review with implications for the COVID-19 response. J Trav Med. 2020;27(7):192.

Maharashtra lockdown to shave off 0.3% growth. Mumbai Care Ratings. Available at https://www.careratings.com/. Accessed on 31 May 2021.

Our World in Data. Fact sheet: Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccinations, 2020. Available at: https://ourworldindata.org/covid-vaccinations. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

The Hindu. Fact sheet: Coronavirus vaccine can be taken 24/7, says Centre, 2021. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/coronavirus-vaccine-can-be-taken-247-says-centre/article33982860.ece. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

The Economic Times. Fact sheet: India Inc works on getting all employees inoculated, sourcing jabs for in-house drives, 2021. Available at: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/company/corporate-trends/india-inc-works-on-getting-all-employees-inoculated/articleshow/82283084. cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

The Times of India. Fact sheet: Door-to-door outreach, street plays planned to boost Dharavi vax drive, 2021. Available at: https://timesofindia. indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/mumbaidoor-to-door-outreach-street-plays-planned-to-boost-dharavi-vax-drive/articleshow/81639587.cms. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

The Hindu. Fact sheet: Special vaccination camps at 200 locations for the 18-44 age group in Chennai, 2021. Available at: https://www.thehindu.com/ news/cities/chennai/coronavirus-special-vaccination-camps-at-200-locations-for-18-44-age-group-in-chennai/article34640185.ece. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

WHO. Fact sheet: WHO lists additional COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use and issues interim policy recommendations, 2021. Available at: https://www.who.int/news/item/07-05-2021-who-lists-additional-covid-19-vaccine-for-emergency-use-and-issues-interim-policy-recommendations. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

CDC. Fact sheet: COVID-19 vaccines for children and teens, 2021. Available at: https://www.cdc. gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/recommenda tions/adolescents.html. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

The Economic Times. Fact sheet: Dubai offers Pfizer vaccine to 12–15-year-olds, 2021. Available at: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/uae/dubai-offers-pfizer-vaccine-to-12-15-year-olds/articleshow/83140554.cms. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs. Fact sheet: Age structure and marital status, 2021. Available at: https://censusindia.gov.in/census_and_ you/age_structure_and_marital_status.aspx. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs. Fact sheet: Building confidence in COVID-19 vaccines, 2021. Available at: https://www.cdc .gov/vaccines/covid-19/vaccinate-with-confidence.html. Accessed on 12 May 2021.

The Indian Express. Fact sheet: Explained: understanding Covid-19 vaccine wastage in India, 2021. Available at: https://indianexpress. com/article/explained/covid-vaccine-wastage-pm-modi-coronavirus-inoculation-drive-7236405/. Accessed on 12 May 2021.