DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20211982

Psychological impact of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on non-frontline healthcare workers: results of a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care hospital in India

Sumit Thakar, Shreyas Singh, Avan Erhunmwunsee Dalton, Kiran Kumar Kadarappa

Abstract


Background: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic affected millions of people physically and many more psychologically. Health care workers (HCWs) are amongst those bearing the brunt of the pandemic-induced psychological trauma. This study was one of the first to analyze the psychological effects of the second pandemic wave in India on non-frontline HCWs, a group that has not received much consideration so far.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey-based study was performed on a cohort of 139 HCWs involved in non-covid services during the early phase of the second pandemic wave. In addition to information on demographics and other baseline characteristics, the survey included questions from the depression, anxiety, and stress scale-21 items (DASS-21).

Results: The prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and stress in the cohort were 14.33%, 15.82% and 12.23% respectively. Clinical HCWs had higher mean anxiety scores than the non-clinical group (p=0.01), while the depression and stress scores were similar across all groups (p=0.23 and 0.21, respectively). Multivariate analysis demonstrated correlation of multiple factors with the DASS-21 scores, of which covid positivity and a longer time spent on covid-related information correlated well with all the DASS-21 scale scores (p<0.05).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates reasonable prevalence rates of depression, stress and anxiety amongst non-frontline HCWs in the setting of the second covid wave in India. Clinical HCWs seem to be more prone to pandemic-induced anxiety during this wave. There is an urgent need for promoting psychological coping strategies amongst all classes of HCWs.


Keywords


COVID-19, Psychological effects, Second wave, Non-frontline, Health care workers

Full Text:

PDF

References


Cabarkapa S, Nadjidai SE, Murgier J, Ng CH. The psychological impact of COVID-19 and other viral epidemics on frontline healthcare workers and ways to address it: A rapid systematic review. Brain Behav Immun Health. 2020;8:100144.

World Health Organization. Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the COVID-19 outbreak, 18 March 2020. World Health Organization; 2020. Available at: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/ coronaviruse/ mental-health-considerations.pdf. Accessed on 01 May 2021.

Wilson W, Raj JP, Rao S, Ghiya M, Nedungalaparambil NM, Mundra H, et al. Prevalence and predictors of stress, anxiety, and depression among healthcare workers managing covid-19 pandemic in india: a nationwide observational study. Indian J Psychol Med. 2020;42(4):353-8.

Suryavanshi N, Kadam A, Dhumal G, Nimkar S, Mave V, Gupta A, et al. Mental health and quality of life among healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic in India. Brain Behav. 2020;10(11):01837.

Khasne RW, Dhakulkar BS, Mahajan HC, Kulkarni AP. Burnout among healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic in India: results of a questionnaire-based survey. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2020;24(8):664-71.

Chatterjee SS, Chakrabarty M, Banerjee D, Grover S, Chatterjee SS, Dan U. Stress, sleep and psychological impact in healthcare workers during the early phase of COVID-19 in India: a factor analysis. Front Psychol. 2021;12:611314.

Raj R, Koyalada S, Kumar A, Kumari S, Pani P, Nishant, et al. Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare workers in India: An observational study. J Family Med Prim Care. 2020;9(12):5921-6.

Sharma R, Saxena A, Magoon R, Jain MK. A cross-sectional analysis of prevalence and factors related to depression, anxiety, and stress in health care workers amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Indian J Anaesth. 2020;64(4):242-4.

Selvaraj P, Muthukanagaraj P, Saluja B, Jeyaraman M, Anudeep TC, Gulati A, et al. Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health-care professionals in India-a multicentric cross-sectional study. Ind J Med Sci. 2020;72(3):141-7.

Tiete J, Guatteri M, Lachaux A, Matossian A, Hougardy JM, Loas G, et al. Mental health outcomes in healthcare workers in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 care units: a cross-sectional survey in Belgium. Front Psychol. 2021;11:612241.

Noor MN, Yusof CR, Yacob MA. Anxiety in frontline and non-frontline healthcare providers in Kelantan, Malaysia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(3):861.

Cai Q, Feng H, Huang J, Wang M, Wang Q, Lu X, et al. The mental health of frontline and non-frontline medical workers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: a case-control study. J Affect Disord. 2020;275:210-5.

Alshekaili M, Hassan W, AlSaid N, AlSulaimani F, Jayapal SK, Al-Mawali A, et al. Factors associated with mental health outcomes across healthcare settings in Oman during COVID-19: frontline versus non-frontline healthcare workers. BMJ Open. 2020;10(10):042030.

Tan BY, Chew NW, Lee GK, Jing M, Goh Y, Yeo LL, et al. Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in Singapore. Ann Inter Med. 2020;173(4):317-20.

Li Z, Ge J, Yang M, Feng J, Qiao M, Jiang R, et al. Vicarious traumatization in the general public, members, and non-members of medical teams aiding in COVID-19 control. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;88:916-9.

Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF. Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales. Sydney, N S W: Psychol Foundat Australia; 1995.

Singh K, Junnarkar M, Sharma S. Anxiety, stress, depression,and psychosocial functioning of Indian adolescents. Indian J Psychiatry. 2015;57(4):367-74.

Thomas AB, Dubey SK, Samanta MK, Alex A, Jose SP. Assessment of psychological stressors of depression and anxiety using depression anxiety stress scale-21 in South Indian healthy volunteers. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2016;8(5):288-95.

Que J, Shi L, Deng J, Liu J, Zhang L, Wu S, et al. Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare workers: a cross-sectional study in China. Gen Psych. 2020;30:100259.

Tan BYQ, Chew NWS, Lee GKH, Jeng M, Yeo LLL, Zhang K, et al. Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in Singapore. Ann Int Med. 2020.

Chew NWS, Lee GKH, Tan BYQ, Jing M, Goh Y, Ngiam NJH, et al. A multinational, multicentre study on the psychological outcomes and associated physical symptoms amongst healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;88:559-65.

Barzelay R, Moore TM, Greenberg DM, DiDemenico GE, Brown LA, White LK. Resilience, COVID-19-related stress, anxiety and depression during the pandemic in a large population enriched for healthcare providers. Transl Psychiatry. 2020;10:291-9.

Luo M, Guo L, Yu M, Jiang W, Wang H. The psychological and mental impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on medical staff and general public- a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2020;291:113190.

Kuo FL, Yang PH, Hsu HT, Su CY, Chen CH, Yeh IJ, et al. Survey on perceived work stress and its influencing factors among hospital staff during the COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2020;36(11):944-52.

Milgrom Y, Tal Y, Finestone AS. Comparison of hospital worker anxiety in COVID-19 treating and non-treating hospitals in the same city during the COVID-19 pandemic. Isr J Health Policy Res. 2020;9(1):55.

Spoorthy MS. Mental health problems faced by healthcare workers due to the COVID-19 pandemic-a review. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;51:102119.

Wu Y, Wang J, Luo C, Hu S, Lin X, Anderson AE, et al. A Comparison of Burnout Frequency Among Oncology Physicians and Nurses Working on the Frontline and Usual Wards During the COVID-19 Epidemic in Wuhan, China. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2020;60(1):e60-5.

Pappa S, Ntella V, Giannakas T, Giannakoulis VG, Papoutsi E, Katsaounou P. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;88:901-7.

Shigemura J, Ursano RJ, Morganstein JC, Kurosawa M, Benedek DM. Public responses to the novel 2019 coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Japan: mental health consequences and target populations. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2020;74(4):281-2.

Zhang M, Zhou M, Tang F, Wang Y, Nie H, Zhang L, et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding COVID-19 among healthcare workers in Henan, China. J Hosp Infect. 2020;105(2):183-7.

Si MY, Su XY, Jiang Y, Wang WJ, Gu XF, Ma L, et al. Psychological impact of COVID-19 on medical care workers in China. Infect Dis Poverty. 2020;9(1):113.

Huynh G, Nguyen TN, Vo KN, Pham LA. Knowledge and attitude toward COVID-19 among healthcare workers at District 2 Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City. As Pac J Trop Med. 2020;13(6):260.

Xiao J, Fang M, Chen Q, He B. SARS, MERS and COVID-19 among healthcare workers: a narrative review. J Infect Public Health. 2020;13:843-8.

Aghili SM, Arbabi M. The COVID-19 pandemic and the health care providers; what does it mean psychologically? Adv J Emerg Med. 2020;4:63.

Maunder RG, Lancee WJ, Rourke S, Hunter JJ, Goldbloom D, Balderson K, et al. Factors associated with the psychological impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome on nurses and other hospital workers in Toronto. Psychosom Med. 2004;66(6):938-42.

Zwack J and Schweitzer J. If every fifth physician is affected by burnout, what about the other four? Resilience strategies of experienced physicians. Acad Med. 2013;88(3):382-9.

Diwan V, Minj C, Chhari N, DeCosta A. Indian medical students in public and private sector medical schools: are motivations and career aspirations different? Studies from Madhya Pradesh, India. BMC Med Educ. 2013;13(1):1-6.

Ying Y, Ruan L, Kong F, Zhu B, Ji Y, Lou Z. Mental health status among family members of health care workers in Ningbo, China, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiat. 2020;20(1):379.

Michl LC, McLaughlin KA, Shepherd K, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Rumination as a mechanism linking stressful life events to symptoms of depression and anxiety: longitudinal evidence in early adolescents and adults. J Abnormal Psychol. 2013;122(2):339.