DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20212009

A comparative study of cardiovascular disease risk among bus drivers and bus conductors of a state transport corporation in North Goa

Shefalee Pai Vernekar, Hemangini Kishore Shah

Abstract


Background: Bus drivers and bus conductors are predisposed to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks.Driving for long duration involves prolonged sitting, which enforces sedentary behavior among drivers in comparison to conductors who have the freedom to move about

Background: Bus drivers and bus conductors are predisposed to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks.Driving for long duration involves prolonged sitting, which enforces sedentary behavior among drivers in comparison to conductors who have the freedom to move about in the bus. The aim and objectives of the study were to identify selected risk factors for CVDs among bus drivers and bus conductors; to estimate the CVDs risk among them using Framingham risk score and to study the difference of risk factors and CVDs risk between bus drivers and conductors.

Methods: The present study was a comparative cross-sectional study among 105 bus drivers and 105 bus conductors at the Panaji bus depot of Goa. A pre-designed semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data along with anthropometric, clinical examination and blood investigations. The Framingham risk score with BMI and lipids was used to compare the CVD risk.

Results: Higher percentage of bus drivers had diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia. When the CVD risk was compared using the Framingham risk score, 63.8% bus drivers had intermediate-high CVD risk using FRS-BMI compared to 46.7% bus conductors and the difference is found to be significant. Using FRS- lipids, 65.7% bus drivers had intermediate-high risk compared to 53.3% bus conductors.

Conclusions: The behavioral risk factors for CVD were higher among bus drivers compared to bus conductors.

 

in the bus. Aims and objectives: 1) To identify selected risk factors for CVDs among bus drivers and bus conductors 2) To estimate the CVDs risk among them using Framingham risk score 3)To study the difference of risk factors and CVDs risk between bus drivers and conductors.

Methods: The present study is a comparative cross sectional study among 105 bus drivers and 105 bus conductors at the Panaji bus depot of Goa.  A predesigned semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data along with anthropometric, clinical examination and blood investigations. The Framingham risk score with BMI and Lipids was used to compare the CVD risk

Results:

Higher percentage of bus drivers had diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia. When the CVD risk was compared using the Framingham risk score, 63.8 % bus drivers had intermediate-high CVD risk using FRS-BMI compared to 46.7 % bus conductors and the difference is found to be significant. Using FRS-Lipids, 65.7 % bus drivers had intermediate-high risk compared to 53.3 % bus conductors.

Conclusion: The behavioural risk factors for CVD were higher among bus drivers compared to bus conductors.


Keywords


Bus drivers, Conductors, Framingham CVD risk

Full Text:

PDF

References


WHO. Cardivascular diseases: Fact sheet, 2015. Available at: http://www.searo.who.int/india/topics/cardiovascular_diseases/factsheet_cvd_2015. Accessed on 1 April 2021.

WHO. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), 2017. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds). Accessed on 1 April 2021.

WHO. National Cardiovascular Disease Database. Available at: https://www.who.int/health-topics/cardiovascular-diseases/#tab=tab_1. Accessed on 1 April 2021.

National Family Health Survey. NFHS-4 fact sheets for key indicators based on final data, 2016. Available at: http://rchiips.org/nfhs/factsheet_nfhs-4.shtml. Accessed on 1 April 2021.

National Family Health Survey. NFHS-4 fact sheets Goa, 2016. Available at: http://rchiips.org/nfhs/pdf/NFHS4/GA_FactSheet. Accessed on 1 April 2021.

Resources Research. District Level Household and Facility Survey -4: State Fact Sheet- Goa, 2013. Available at: https://makanaka.wordpress.com/district-level. Accessed on 1 April 2021.

Non-Communicable Disease Cell. Directorate of Health Services, Goa, 2018. Available at: www.dhsgoa.gov.in/ncdc.htm. Accessed on 1 April 2021.

Albieri D, Salvagioni J, Melanda FN, Mesas AE. Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies. PLoS One. 2017;12(10):185781.

ILO. Work place Stress- A collective challenge. Italy: ILO, 2016. Available at: https://www.ilo.org/safework/info/publications/WCMS_466547/lang--en/index.htm. Accessed on 1 April 2021.

Holme I, Helgeland A, Hjermann I, Leren P, Lund LP. Coronary risk factors in various occupational groups : The Oslo study. Bristsh J Prev Soc Med. 1977;31(2):96-100.

Shetty K, Prabhu S, Cunha DD, Souza OD, Suvarna A, Jacob B. Morbidity profile of transport sector workers and its correlation with social and work factors. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016;5(10):2030-5.

Varela M, Veronica: Sedentary behaviours, physical activity and cardiovascular health amongst bus and lorry drivers. Loughborough University. 2016.

Kompier MAJ. Bus drivers: Occupational stress and stress prevention. Int Labour Organiz. 1996;2-3.

Nasri H, Moazenzadeh M. Coronary artery disease risk factors in drivers versus people in other occupations. ARYA Atheroscler. 2006;2(2):75-8.

Joshi AR, Vaidya SM. Evaluation of perceived stress in bus drivers of Pune city. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2017;7(1):90-3.

Cohen’s scales. Laboratory for the study of stress, immunityand disease, 2015. Available at: www.psy.cmu.edu/~scohen/scales.html. Accessed on 1 April 2021.

Chia YC, Gray SYW, Ching SM, Lim HM, Chinna K. Validation of the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score in a multiethnic Asian population: a retrospective cohort study. BMJ Open. 2015;5(5):1-7.

Agostino RB, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, Wolf PA, Cobain M, Massaro JM, et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2008;117(6):743-53.

Agostino RBD, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, Wolf PA, Cobain M, Massaro JM, et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care. Circulation. 2008;117(6):743-53.

Framingham Heart Study: Participants, 2017. Available at: www.framinghamheartstudy.org. Accessed on 1 April 2021.

Imran MR, Devi BS. Study of changes in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk factors due to stress using physiological and biochemical profiles in professional urban bus drivers. Int J Recent Trends Sci Technol. 2013;6(2):98-103.

Aslam M, Asif M, Altaf S. Obesity; prevalence among drivers and conducttors in Multan, Pakistan. Prof Med J. 2015;22(7):859-64.

Landim MBP, Victor EG. Framingham score for public trasportation drivers in the city of Teresina, Piaui. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2006;87(3):280-5.

Shin SY, Lee CG, Song HS, Kim SH, Lee HS, Jung MS, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk of bus drivers in a city of Korea. Ann Occup Environ Med. 2013;25(34):1-9.

Priya PL, Sathya P. A study to find out cardiovascular risk in bus drivers by using waist to height ratio and WHO/ISH risk prediction chart. Int J Innov Res Sci Eng Technol. 2015;4(6):3933-40.

Bansal M, Kasliwal RR, Trehan N. Relationship between different cardiovascular risk scores and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in an Indian population. Indian Heart J. 2015;67(4):332-40.

Garg N, Muduli SK, Kapoor A, Tewari S, Kumar S, Khanna R, Goel PK. Comparison of different cardiovascular risk score calculators for cardiovascular risk prediction and guideline recommended statin uses. Indian Heart J. 2017;69(4):458-63.

Hedberg GE, Jacobsson KA, Janlert U. Risk indicators of ischemic heart disease among male professional drivers in Sweden. Scand J Work Env Heal. 1993;19(5):326-33.