DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20211767

Second-hand smoke exposure prevalence among smokers versus non-smokers and relative change at sub-national level in India: a secondary analysis from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 1 and 2

Sakshi Supehia, Shivam Kapoor, Pranay Lal, Rana J. Singh, Anushikha Dhankhar

Abstract


Background: Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been linked to the expanded risk of ill-effects on health every year. This study compared prevalence rates of SHS exposure between smokers and non-smokers within three different settings and states/union territories (UT) in India, during the period 2009-10 and 2016-17.

Methods: The data from two rounds of nationally representative cross-sectional Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in 2009-10 and 2016-17 were used. Further, the sociodemographic variables associated with exposure to SHS at different settings were analysed using multiple logistic regression analysis. All statistical inferences were based on a significance level of p<0.05.

Results: Although there was a significant decrease in overall prevalence of SHS exposure among smokers and non-smokers at home, government offices, restaurants and, public transportation and slight decrease in health care facility (p<0.05); increased level of exposure was observed at workplace which was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The prevalence of exposure to SHS varied significantly between smokers and non-smokers and differed greatly among states/UT as assessed by the relative change between GATS-1 and GATS-2. While Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and, Odisha were among the best-performing states; Jammu and Kashmir, Chhattisgarh and, Madhya Pradesh were the worst-performers.

Conclusions: The results confirmed that the prevalence rates of SHS exposure among non-smokers, were much higher as compared to smokers in all different settings along with state-wise disparities. This calls for the Policymakers for targeted effective enforcement of tobacco control laws, leading to a reduction in the consequences of SHS exposure.


Keywords


Exposure, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India, Second-hand smoke, Tobacco Control, Prevalence

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organisation. WHO Tobacco Fact sheets 2019. Available at https:// www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tobacco. Accessed on 5 February 2021.

Singh RJ, Lal PG. Second-hand smoke: a neglected public health challenge. Indian J Public Health. 2011;55:192-8.

Government of India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Revised smoke free rules. notification in the official gazette GSR.417 (E), 2008. Accessed on 5 February 2021.

World Health Organisation. WHO Global Health Observatory (GHO) Data. Available at https://www.who.int/gho/phe/secondhand_smoke/exposure_text/en/. Accessed on 5 February 2021.

World Health Organisation. WHO Quantifying environmental health impacts. Available at https://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/shsarticle2010/en/. Accessed on 10 February 2021.

World Health Organisation. WHO India ages 13-15 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) Fact sheet. Available at https:// www. who. int/ fctc/reporting/Annexoneindia.pdf. Accessed on 12 February 2021.

Ministry of Law and Justice. COTPA 2003. Available at https://www. tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/India/India-COTPA—national.pdf. Accessed on 10 February 2021.

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; Government of India. Global Adult Tobacco Survey; GATS India- 2009–2010. International Institute for Population Sciences. 2010:1-289. Accessed on 15 February 2021.

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India. Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2016–2017. International Institute for Population Sciences. 2017. Available at https:// mohfw. gov. in/ sites/ default/ files/GlobaltobacoJune 2018. Pdf. Accessed on 10 February 2021.

Tripathy JP. Secondhand smoke exposure at home and public places among smokers and non-smokers in India: findings from the global adult tobacco survey 2016-17. Environmen Sci Pollution Res. 2019;12:19-23.

Verma M, Kathirvel S, Das M, Aggarwal R, Goel S. Trends and patterns of second-hand smoke exposure amongst the non-smokers in India-A secondary data analysis from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) I & II. Plos one. 2020 Jun 10;15(6):e0233861.

Reddy MM, Kanungo S, Kar SS. Correlates of secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking youth (15-24 years) in India: secondary analysis from global adult tobacco survey, 2009-10. J Family Med Prim Care. 2018;7:111-7.

Center of Disease Control. GTSS Data: Datasets. Available at https:// nccd. cdc. gov/ GTSS DataSurveyResources/Ancillary/DataReports.aspx?Country=180&CAID=2&Survey=4&WHORegion=2&Site=384000. Accessed on 10 February 2021.

Law M, Morris J, Wald N. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and ischaemic heart disease: An evaluation of the evidence. Br Med J. 1997;315:973-80.

World Health Organization (WHO). Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, 2004 Available at https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/42811/9241591013.pdf;jsessionid=82BED20274E6F93DA57B9DF2309B40FC?sequence=1. Accessed 17 February 2021.

Bhatt G, Goel S, Mor S, Gupta R. Exposure to Second-hand smoke and its correlates in Northern state of India. Br Med J. 2018;62:128-32.

Zheng D, Ji Y, Dong YH. The prevalence of smoking, second-hand smoke exposure, and knowledge of the health hazards of smoking among internal migrants in 12 provinces in China: a cross-sectional analysis. BMC Public Health. 2018;18:655.

West R. Tobacco smoking: health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions. Psychol Health. 2017;32(8):1018-36.

Abdullah AS, Driezen P, Sansone G, Nargis N, Hussain GAKM, Quah ACK, et al. Correlates of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home among non-smoking adults in Bangladesh: findings from the ITC Bangladesh survey. BMC Pulmonary Medicine. 2014;14:117.

Sein AA, Than HM, Dhirendra S, Nyo K. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke among adults in Myanmar. Indian Journal Cancer. 2012;49:410-8.

Agrawal D, Aggarwal A, Goel S. Women exposed to second-hand smoke more at home than at workplace: An analysis of GATS Report, India, 2009-10. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2015;4(3):293.

Lee BE, Ha EH. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study of the 2005 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey. Environ Health. 2011;10:29.

Hakansta C. Workplace smoking. working paper: a review of national and local practical and regulatory measures. Int Labour Organization. 2021;2:32-9.

Zeng J, Yang S, Wu L, Wang J, Wang Y, Liu M. Prevalence of passive smoking in the community population aged 15 years and older in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2016;6(4):e009847.

Petersen AB, Thompson LM, Dadi GB. Factors associated with second hand tobacco smoke in the home: an exploratory cross-sectional study among women in Aleta Wondo, Ethiopia. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:910.

National Tobacco Control Programme (NTCP). Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. New Delhi; Government of India; 2004. Available at https://mohfw.gov.in/sites/default/files/About%20NTCC.pdf. Accessed on 20 February 2021.

Chatterjee N, Patil D, Kadam R, Fernandes G. The Tobacco-Free Village Program: Helping rural areas implement and achieve goals of tobacco control policies in India. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2017;5(3):476-85.

US Center for Disease Control and Prevention. About the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/about_nhanes.html. Accessed on 20 February 2021.

US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the surgeon general. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2006. Accessed on 20 February 2021.