DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20210956

Prevalence and risk factors associated with gestational diabetes mellitus in urbanised villages of East Delhi

Kalpesh Gohel, Pragti Chhabra, S. V. Madhu, Priyanka Mody, Shiv Pujari

Abstract


Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is caused by an inability to increase insulin secretion in response to the insulin resistance experienced during pregnancy. This transient hyperglycemia poses immediate health-risks for the baby and long-term in the mother. Thus, GDM offers an experimental opportunity to study strategies for diabetes management.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of two urbanized villages in East Delhi was performed over 1.5 years. 290 subjects with >12 weeks gestation, who were residents of the villages for at least 6 months, were enrolled. Detailed demographic and medical history with laboratory findings were collected and glucose challenge test (GCT) and Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were used for screening and diagnosis of GDM.

Results: Prevalence of GDM was found to be 9.1% in urbanized villages. High gravida (OR:2.97; 95% CI:1.24-7.12; p<0.014), longer duration of stay at the present residence (OR:2.48; 95% CI:1.05-5.84; p<0.037) and the presence of a family history of diabetes (OR:3.93; 95% CI:1.54-10.02; p<0.04) were found to be significantly associated with the chance of developing GDM in regression analysis. Pregnant women located in urban India for more than three years were 2.48 times more likely to have GDM as compared to those who were residing for lesser duration.

Conclusions: As more women reside in urban localities and experience childbearing at a higher age, burden of diabetes mellitus in the community increases. This rising prevalence indicates importance of prevalence studies in a changing Indian geography.


Keywords


GDM, Insulin resistance, Pregnancy hyperglycemia, GCT, OGTT

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