DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20211205

Depression and its associated factors among elderly people of old age homes and community of Kathmandu district, Nepal: a comparative study

Prajita Mali, Eak Narayan Poudel, Sushmita Mali, Lisasha Poudel, Santosh Prakash Joshi

Abstract


Background: Depression is a common public health problem among elders worldwide and is associated with high morbidity and disability. This study aims to assess depression and its associated factors among elderly in old-age homes and a community of Kathmandu district.

Method: A comparative cross-sectional study recruited 122 elderly from old-age homes and a community of Kathmandu district. Depression was measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale-short scale (GDS-15). Socio-demographic and medical history was collected using semi-structured questionnaire. We utilized bivariate logistic regression to assess the association of depression with each variable.

Results: The prevalence of depression among elderly in old-age homes was 74.6% and in community was 41.8%. The study found that elderly residing at old age homes were four (OR=4.087; 95% CI=2.373-7.038) times more likely to have depression than those residing in the community. Age was found to be associated with depression among the respondent of both settings. In old-age homes, not receiving old-age allowance, bad perception of life, bad social relation, having a chronic disease, lack of care from family, stress and weeping as stress coping strategy were associated with depression. In the community, stress, non-involvement in family decision making, feeling of neglect, dysfunctional capability, bad social relation, lesser monthly income had positive relation with depression.

Conclusion: Depression is highly prevalent among Nepalese elderly, with higher burden in those living in old-age homes. This emphasizes the need for screening of depression among elderly, to initiate early intervention measures.

 


Keywords


Geriatric depression, Geriatric depression scale, Old-age home

Full Text:

PDF

References


Yadav R. Ageing Population in Nepal: Challenges and Management. Acad voices A Multidiscip J. 2012;2(1):48-53.

National Human Rights Commission. Monitoring Synopsis of the Senior Citizens’ Care Centers -2019. 2019. Available at: https://www.nhrcnepal.org/ nhrc_new/doc/newsletter/Monitoring_Synopsis_of_the_Senior_Citizens_Care_Centers_2019-min.pdf.

Chalise HN. Depression among elderly living in Briddashram (old age home). Adv Aging Res. 2014;03(01):6-11.

World Health Organization (WHO). Global strategy and action plan on ageing and health. WHO. 2017:1-56. Available at: http://apps.who.int/bookorders. %0Ahttp://www.who.int/ageing/WHO-GSAP-2017.pdf?ua=1.

Hughes C. Depression in older people. Nursing older people: independence, autonomy and self-fulfillment. 2005;4:529-54.

Gellis ZD, McCracken SG. Mental Health and Older Adults Chapter 3: Depressive Disorders in Older adults. Council on Social Work Education. 1999;3:31–4

World Health Organization. Mental Health of Older Adults. 2017 Dec 12. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/mental-health-of-older-adults.

Lwanga S, Lemeshow S. Table Minimum Sample Size in Health Studies. Sample Size Determination in Health Studies. A Practical Manual. 1991:1-58.

Ghimire H, Pokharel PK, Shyangwa PM, Baral DD, Aryal A, Mishra AK. Are Elderly People Living In Old-Age Home, Less Depressed Than Those Of Community ? Findings From A Comparative Study. J Chitwan Med Coll. 2012;1(2):5-8.

Greenberg SA. The geriatric depression scale (GDS). Best Pract Nurs Care to Older Adults. 2012;4(4):1-2.

Nagaraj AKM, Mathew J, Nanjegowda RB, Majgi SM, SM P. Psychiatric Morbidity Among Elderly People Living in Old Age Homes and in the Community : A Comparative Study. Online J Heal Allied Sci. 2011;10(4):1-5.

Qadir F, Haqqani S, Khalid A, Huma Z, Medhin G. A pilot study of depression among older people in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7(1):409.

Karini D, Kumar Lotheti S, Bhimarasetty DM. A comparative study of depression among the elderly living in old age homes and community in Visakhapatnam, India. Int J Community Med Public Heal. 2019;6(4):1482.

George S, Francis PT, Paul N, Leelamoni K. Depression Among Elderly : A Comparative Study Among The Elderly Living In Old Age Homes And Own Homes In Ernakulum, Kerala State, India. Int J Emerg Technol. 2015;2(4):62-6.

McDoguall FA, Kvall K, Mathews FE, Paykel E, Jones PB, Dewey ME, et al. Prevalence of depression in older people in England and Wales: the MRC CFA Study. Psychol Med. 2007;37(12):1787-95.

Timalsina R, Sherpa PD, Dhakal DK. Factors Associated with Depression among Elderly Living in Old Age Homes in Kathmandu Valley. J Inst Med. 36:1:90-6.

Leal MCC, Apóstolo JLA, Mendes AM de OC, Marques AP de O. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated factors among institutionalized elderly. Acta Paul Enferm. 2014;27(3):208-14.

Bojorquez-Chapela I, Villalobos-Daniel VE, Manrique-Espinoza BS, Tellez-Rojo MM, Salinas-Rodríguez A. Depressive symptoms among poor older adults in Mexico: prevalence and associated factors. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2009;26(1):70-7.

Ranjan S, Bhattarai A, Dutta M. Prevalence of depression among elderly people living in old age home in the capital city Kathmandu. Heal Renaiss. 2014;11(3):213-8.

Peltzer K, Phaswana-Mafuya N. Depression and associated factors in older adults in South Africa. Glob Health Action. 2013;6(1):18871.

Bodhare TN, Kaushal V, Venkatesh K, Kumar MA. Prevalence and risk factors of depression among elderly population in a rural area. Perspect Med Res. 2013;1(1):11-5.

Grover S, Malhotra N. Depression in elderly: A review of Indian research. J Geriatr Ment Heal. 2015;2(1):4.

Rashid A, Manan A, Rohana S. Depression Among The Elderly Malays Living In Rural Malaysia. Internet J Public Heal. 2010;1(2):1-10.

Rajkumar AP, Thangadurai P, Senthilkumar P, Gayathri K, Prince M, Jacob KS. Nature, prevalence and factors associated with depression among the elderly in a rural south Indian community. Int Psychogeriatrics. 2009;21(02):372.

Imran A, Azidah AK, Asrenee AR, Rosediani M. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors among elderly patients in outpatient clinic of Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital. Med J Malaysia. 2009;64(2):134-9.

Kim J-I, Choe M-A, Chae YR. Prevalence and Predictors of Geriatric Depression in Community-Dwelling Elderly. Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci). 2009;3(3):121-9.

Sengupta P, Benjamin AI. Prevalence of depression and associated risk factors among the elderly in urban and rural field practice areas of a tertiary care institution in Ludhiana. Indian J Public Health. 2015;59(1):3-8.

Teo AR, Choi H, Valenstein M. Social Relationships and Depression: Ten-Year Follow-Up from a Nationally Representative Study. Coyne J, editor. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e62396.

Barger SD, Messerli-Bürgy N, Barth J. Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland: nationally representative cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):273.

Fiske A, Wetherell JL, Gatz M. Depression in older adults. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2009;5:363-89.