DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20210066

The potential impact of COVID-19 infection on tuberculosis: a literature review

Muhammad Mahmood Akhtar, Saud Talaq Alotaibi, Abdullah Fayez Althubeti, Shaker Awwad Alharthi, Shikih Hussain Alhassan, Malath Abdulrahman Bukhari, Abdulrahman Faris Alamri, Abdulaziz Faris Alamri, Abdulaziz Khalafallah Alnumari, Nasser Eid Alsufyani, Abdullah Hassan Alhamoud

Abstract


Tuberculosis is among the oldest endemic conditions affecting humans; however, it remains a significant health issue around the globe. As with previous outbreaks/epidemics, the COVID-19 impact on TB control efforts and outcomes should raise concerns; however, the extent of this impact is currently unknown. In the current study, we aim to review the literature to provide an overview of the available evidence discussing the impact of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) on TB infections. On one hand, many of the existing reports showed that having TB infection may contribute to developing severe forms of acute respiratory syndrome in patients co-infected with COVID-19, and the presence of underlying TB infection was identified as a risk factor for COVID-19 infection. However, other reports showed that patients with present TB were not more vulnerable to get infected with COVID-19 or to higher mortality rates. In the same context, COVID-19 may have an impact on the late reactivation of TB, which could be mediated through its effects on the immune system functionality and subsequent development of active TB. Moreover, TB preventive treatment programs, awareness campaigns, and anti-TB funding were also affected by COVID-19. Accordingly, the global strategy to end the TB by 2035 may be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospital admission for TB patients should be restricted to severe cases, to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 in those cases. Due to scarce evidence, more studies are needed to guide management plans in this particular context.


Keywords


COVID-19, Tuberculosis, Co-infection, Burden

Full Text:

PDF

References


Comas I, Coscolla M, Luo T. Out-of-Africa migration and Neolithic coexpansion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with modern humans. Nat Genet. 2013;45(10):1176-82.

The global burden of tuberculosis: results from the global burden of disease study 2015. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018;18(3):261-84.

Houben RM, Dodd PJ. The Global Burden of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Re-estimation Using Mathematical Modelling. PLoS Med. 2016;13(10): e1002152.

World health organization. Global tuberculosis report 2019. Available at: https://www.who.int/teams/ global-tuberculosis-programme/tb-reports/global-report-2019. Accessed on 20 November 2020.

Glaziou P, Floyd K, Raviglione M. Trends in tuberculosis in the UK. Thorax. 2018;73(8):702-3.

Motala S, Ngandu S, Mti S. Millennium development goals: Country report 2015. Available at: https://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/2015_MDG_Report/pdf/MDG%202015%20rev%20(July%201).pdf. Accessed on 20 November 2020.

Corbett EL, Watt CJ, Walker N. The growing burden of tuberculosis: global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Arch Int Med. 2003;163(9):1009-21.

Edmonds A, Lusiama J, Napravnik S, Kitetele F, Van Rie A, Behets F. Anti-retroviral therapy reduces incident tuberculosis in HIV-infected children. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38:1612-21.

Zachariah R, Ortuno N, Hermans V, Desalegn W, Rust S, Reid AJ, Boeree MJ, Harries AD. Ebola, fragile health systems and tuberculosis care: a call for pre-emptive action and operational research. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015;19(11):1271-5.

Ansumana R, Keitell S, Roberts GM. Impact of infectious disease epidemics on tuberculosis diagnostic, management, and prevention services: experiences and lessons from the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. Int J Infect Dis. 2017;56:101-4.

Alfaraj SH, Al-Tawfiq JA, Altuwaijri TA, Memish ZA. Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus and pulmonary tuberculosis coinfection: implications for infection control. Intervirol. 2017;60(1-2):53-5.

Uplekar M, Weil D, Lonnroth K. WHO's new end TB strategy. Lancet. 2015;385(9979):1799-801.

Lönnroth K, Raviglione M. The WHO's new End TB Strategy in the post-2015 era of the Sustainable Development Goals. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2016;110(3):148-50.

Parpia A, Mbah M, Wenzel N, Galvani A. Effects of Response to 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak on deaths from malaria, hiv/aids, and tuberculosis, West Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22.

Wingfield T, Cuevas LE, MacPherson P, Millington KA, Squire SB. Tackling two pandemics: a plea on world tuberculosis day. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8 (6):536-8.

Pang Y, Liu Y, Du J, Gao J, Li L. Impact of COVID-19 on tuberculosis control in China. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2020;24(5):545-7.

Glynn JR, Guerra-Assunção JA, Houben RM. Whole Genome sequencing shows a low proportion of tuberculosis disease is attributable to known close contacts in rural malawi. PloS one. 2015;10(7): e0132840.

Organization WH. MERS situation update, January 2020. Available at: http://www emro who int/health-topics/mers-cov/mersoutbreaks html (2902 2020). Accessed on 20 November 2020.

He J-f, Peng G-w, Zheng H-z. An epidemiological study on the index cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome occurred in different cities among Guangdong province. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2003;24(5):347-9.

Li J-Y, You Z, Wang Q, et al. The epidemic of 2019-novel-coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia and insights for emerging infectious diseases in the future. Microbes Infect. 2020;22(2):80-5.

Oei W, Nishiura H. The relationship between tuberculosis and influenza death during the influenza (H1N1) pandemic from 1918-19. Comput Math Methods Med. 2012;2012:124861.

Chen J, Hu C, Chen L. Clinical study of mesenchymal stem cell treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by epidemic influenza a (h7n9) infection: a hint for covid-19 treatment. Engineering (Beijing). 2020;6(10):1153-61.

Rello J, Tejada S, Userovici C, Arvaniti K, Pugin J, Waterer G. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A critical care perspective beyond China. Anaesth Criti Care Pain Med. 2020;39(2):167-9.

Redford PS, Mayer-Barber KD, McNab FW. Influenza A virus impairs control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection through a type I interferon receptor-dependent pathway. J Infect Dis. 2014;209 (2):270-4.

Mayer-Barber KD, Sher A. Cytokine and lipid mediator networks in tuberculosis. Immun Rev. 2015;264(1):264-75.

Oei W, Nishiura H. The relationship between tuberculosis and influenza death during the influenza (H1N1) pandemic from 1918-19. Comput Math Methods Med. 2012;2012:124861.

Walaza S, Cohen C, Nanoo A. Excess mortality associated with influenza among tuberculosis deaths in South Africa, 1999-2009. PloS one. 2015;10(6): e0129173.

Roth S, Whitehead S, Thamthitiwat S. Concurrent influenza virus infection and tuberculosis in patients hospitalized with respiratory illness in Thailand. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013;7(3):244-8.

Co DO, Hogan LH, Kármán J. Interactions between T cells responding to concurrent mycobacterial and influenza infections1. J Immunol. 2006;177:8456-65.

Walaza S, Cohen C, Tempia S. Influenza and tuberculosis co-infection: A systematic review. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2020;14(1):77-91.

Liu W, Fontanet A, Zhang P-H. Pulmonary tuberculosis and SARS, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):707-9.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis found through screening for severe acute respiratory syndrome-Taipei, Taiwan, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004;53(15):321-2.

Guan W-j, Ni Z-y, Hu Y. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Eng J Med. 2020;382(18):1708-20.

Harris J, Keane J. How tumour necrosis factor blockers interfere with tuberculosis immunity. Clin Exper Immunol. 2010;161(1):1-9.

Crisan-Dabija R, Grigorescu C, Pavel C-A. Tuberculosis and COVID-19: Lessons from the Past Viral Outbreaks and Possible Future Outcomes. Canada Respir J. 2020;2020:1401053.

Dheda K, Gumbo T, Gandhi NR. Global control of tuberculosis: from extensively drug-resistant to untreatable tuberculosis. Lancet Respir Med. 2014;2 (4):321-38.

Yasri S, Wiwanitkit V. Tuberculosis and novel Wuhan coronavirus infection: Pathological interrelationship. Indian J Tuberc. 2020;67(2):264.

Tamuzi JL, Ayele BT, Shumba CS. Implications of COVID-19 in high burden countries for HIV/TB: A systematic review of evidence. BMC Infect Dis. 2020;20(1):744.

Gao Y, Liu M, Chen Y, Shi S, Geng J, Tian J. Association between tuberculosis and COVID-19 severity and mortality: A rapid systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Virol. 2020.

Motta I, Centis R, D'Ambrosio L. Tuberculosis, COVID-19 and migrants: Preliminary analysis of deaths occurring in 69 patients from two cohorts. Pulmonol. 2020;26(4):233-40.

Stochino C, Villa S, Zucchi P, Parravicini P, Gori A, Raviglione MC. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 and active tuberculosis co-infection in an Italian reference hospital. Eur Respir J. 2020;56(1): 2001708.

Qin C, Zhou L, Hu Z. Dysregulation of Immune Response in Patients With Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(15):762-8.

Shi Y, Wang Y, Shao C, Huang J, Gan J, Huang X, Bucci E, Piacentini M, Ippolito G, Melino G. COVID-19 infection: the perspectives on immune responses. Cell Death Differ. 2020;27(5):1451-4.

Singh V, Sharma BB, Patel V. Pulmonary sequelae in a patient recovered from swine flu. Lung India. 2012;29(3):277-9.

Noymer A. The 1918-19 influenza pandemic affected tuberculosis in the United States: reconsidering Bradshaw, Smith, and Blanchard. Biodemography Soc Biol. 2008 Fall;54(2):125-33; discussion 134-40.

Pawlowski A, Jansson M, Sköld M, Rottenberg ME, Källenius G. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8(2):e1002464.

Barnes PF, Bloch AB, Davidson PT, Snider DE. Tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Eng J Med. 1991;324(23):1644-50.

Alene KA, Wangdi K, Clements ACA. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Tuberculosis Control: An Overview. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020;5(3):123.

Organization WH. WHO operational handbook on tuberculosis: module 1: prevention: tuberculosis preventive treatment. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240002906. Accessed on 20 November 2020.

McQuaid CF, McCreesh N, Read JM, et al. The potential impact of COVID-19-related disruption on tuberculosis burden. Eur Respir J. 2020;56(2):2001718.

Sumner A, Hoy C, Ortiz-Juarez E. Estimates of the impact of COVID-19 on global poverty. Available T: https://www.wider.unu.edu/publication/estimates-impact-covid-19-global-poverty. Accessed on 20 November 2020.

Tackling poverty in tuberculosis control. Lancet . 2005;366(9503):2063.

Spence DP, Hotchkiss J, Williams CS, Davies PD. Tuberculosis and poverty. BMJ. 1993;307(6907): 759-61.

Oxlade O, Murray M. Tuberculosis and poverty: why are the poor at greater risk in India?. PloS one. 2012;7(11):e47533.