DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20210017

Etiology of thumb sucking habit and its effect on developing malocclusion

Zahid Nisar Ahmed, Ahmed Mahmoud Hussin, Anoud Fahad Alanazi, Abdullah Mohammed Alhuraish, Sarah Abdullah Abomelha, Thabt Hassan Tulbah, Aidel Abdullah Alshahrani, Alanoud Fahad Alotaibi, Walaa Amer Alkheshail, Waleed Khalid Almalki, Waed Shaker Alshaikh, Ali Mohammed Aldossari

Abstract


The persistence of thumb sucking might also be harmful as it might be associated with the development of complications seen on the thumb as paronychia and nail deformities and in the mouth level as malocclusions. In this review, we have looked up studies in the literature to identify the effect of thumb sucking on the development of malocclusion. Thumb sucking in children usually occurs as a primitive reflex that appears in early childhood with no apparent causative factors. Children usually develop this thumb sucking habit because in this way they feel more comfortable and secure. The main cause behind the development of thumb sucking is the prolonged presence of the thumb in the mouth which creates pressure against the developing jaw and teeth. This may interfere with the process of tooth eruption leading to delayed or abrupt eruption events and malformations. The severity of malocclusion deformities is significantly associated with the chronicity and period of thumb-sucking habits. Other forms of occlusions secondary to thumb sucking include: anterior open bite, exaggerated overjet, posterior crossbite, retrognathic mandible, a diastema, temporomandibular joint disorders and the retroclined low anterior. Thumb sucking, however, is a self-limiting phenomenon and usually disappears as children grow older. However, when persistence is noticed, immediate management should be approached to avoid any potential complications.


Keywords


Thumb sucking, Breastfeeding, Oral development, Malocclusion

Full Text:

PDF

References


Narbutytė I, Narbutytė A, Linkevičienė L. Relationship between breastfeeding, bottle-feeding and development of malocclusion. Stomatologija. 2013;15(3):67-72.

Rochelle IMF, Tagliaferro EPDS, Pereira AC, Meneghim MDC, Nóbilo KA, Ambrosano GMB. Breastfeeding, deleterious oral habits and malocclusion in 5-year-old children in São Pedro, SP, Brazil. Dental Press J Orthod. 2010;15(2).

Chen X, Xia B, Ge L. Effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:46.

Pires SC, Giugliani ER, Caramez da Silva F. Influence of the duration of breastfeeding on quality of muscle function during mastication in preschoolers: a cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):934.

Turgeon-O'Brien H, Lachapelle D, Gagnon PF, Larocque I, Maheu-Robert LF. Nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits: a review. J Dent Child. 1996;63(5):321-7.

Jyoti S, Pavanalakshmi G. Nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits-effect on the developing oro-facial complex; a review. Dentistry. 2014;4(3):1-4.

Moimaz SA, Zina LG, Saliba NA, Saliba O. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2008;26(3):102-6.

Agarwal SS, Nehra K, Sharma M, Jayan B, Poonia A, Bhattal H. Association between breastfeeding duration, non-nutritive sucking habits and dental arch dimensions in deciduous dentition: a cross-sectional study. Prog Orthod. 2014;15(1):59.

Borrie FR, Bearn DR, Innes NP, Iheozor-Ejiofor Z. Interventions for the cessation of non-nutritive sucking habits in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015(3):Cd008694.

Kumar V, Shivanna V, Kopuri RC. Knowledge and attitude of pediatricians toward digit sucking habit in children. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2019;37(1): 18-24.

Nasir A, Nasir L. Counseling on early childhood concerns: sleep issues, thumb-sucking, picky eating, school readiness, and oral health. Am Fam Physician. 2015;92(4):274-8.

Ferrante A, Ferrante A. Finger or thumb sucking, new interpretations and therapeutic implications. Minerva Pediatr. 2015;67(4):285-97.

Tanny L, Huang B, Naung NY, Currie G. Non-orthodontic intervention and non-nutritive sucking behaviours: A literature review. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2018;34(4):215-22.

Lopes Freire GM, Espasa Suarez de Deza JE, Rodrigues da Silva IC, Butini Oliveira L, Ustrell Torrent JM, Boj Quesada JR. Non-nutritive sucking habits and their effects on the occlusion in the deciduous dentition in children. Eur J Paediat Dent. 2016;17(4):301-6.

Baker E, Masso S, McLeod S, Wren Y. Pacifiers, Thumb Sucking, Breastfeeding, and Bottle Use: Oral Sucking Habits of Children with and without Phonological Impairment. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2018;70(3-4):165-73.

Barbosa C, Vasquez S, Parada MA. The relationship of bottle feeding and other sucking behaviors with speech disorder in Patagonian preschoolers. BMC Pediatr. 2009;9:66.

Sikorska A, CudzjBo D, Matthew-Kozanecka M, Turska-MaljDska R. Impact of incorrect oral habits on mastication anomalies in children and adolescents - literature review and own observations. Dev Period Med. 2016;204:325-7.

Calisti LJ, Cohen MM, Fales MH. Correlation between malocclusion, oral habits, and socio-economic level of preschool children. J Dent Res. 1960;39:450-4.

Moss JP, Picton DC. The problems of dental development among the children on a Greek island. Dent Pract Dent Rec. 1968;18(12):442-8.

López Del Valle LM, Singh GD, Feliciano N, Machuca Mdel C. Associations between a history of breast feeding, malocclusion and parafunctional habits in Puerto Rican children. P R Health Sci J. 2006;25(1):31-4.

Sillman JH. Thumb-sucking and the oral structures a serial study from birth to 14 years of age. J Pediatr. 1951;39(4):424-30.

Ling HTB, Sum FHKMH, Zhang L. The association between nutritive, non-nutritive sucking habits and primary dental occlusion. BMC Oral Health. 2018;18 (1):145-5.

Warren JJ, Bishara SE. Duration of nutritive and nonnutritive sucking behaviors and their effects on the dental arches in the primary dentition. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2002;121(4):347-56.

Ozawa N, Hamada S, Takekoshi F, Shinji H. A study on non-nutritive sucking habits in young Japanese children, relationships among incidence, duration, malocclusion and nursing behavior. Pediatr Dent J. 2005;15(1):64-71.

Duncan K, McNamara C, Ireland AJ, Sandy JR. Sucking habits in childhood and the effects on the primary dentition: findings of the Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2008;18(3):178-88.