DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20205735

Pharmacologic agents for the management of COVID-19: a review

Syeda Maria Hassan, Hamza Sohail, Abeer Iftikhar, Rabia Rathore, Qandeel Fatima

Abstract


Coronavirus, in December 2019, caused a SARS-2 pandemic. Primarily targeting the human respiratory system, the major symptoms of this disease are high grade fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, sore throat, and fatigue while symptoms involving other organ systems such as diarrhea, headache, conjunctivitis, and rash also develops. Like a SARS-CoV-1 outbreak in 2002, SARS-CoV-2 is difficult to treat as minimal data is available regarding its treatment strategies and potential cure of the disease. A thorough literature review was done to identify different potential treatments for SARS-CoV-2 and a perspective of a developing country, Pakistan, on managing and treating this infection was provided. We found that use of off-label drugs including including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, azithromycin, interferon, ribavirin, lopinavir-ritonavir, increased exponentially to treat COVID-19 patients around the world and studies suggested their efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. Use of adjunctive therapies including convalescent plasma, interferons, and corticosteroids also showed positive results in slowing down the progression of the disease. Different clinical trials are being conducted around the world to identify drugs and develop vaccine against infection caused by this deadly virus. Use of these off-label drugs and adjunctive therapies was also seen in a developing Country like Pakistan, which need desperate measures to overcome COVID-19 disease burden on the country’s people and the economy. Coronavirus is infecting thousands of people daily, worldwide. Major action including upgrading medical facilities, investing in health care sector, developing effective drugs, must be taken in both developed and developing countries like Pakistan to fight, contain and prevent future pandemics.


Keywords


Coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Treatment, Pakistan

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References


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