DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20204420

A cross sectional study on immunization status among children 12 to 24 months of age in urban field practice area of tertiary health care centre, Hyderabad

Arundhathi Baaki, Lavanya Katta, Sreelatha Panuganti, B. Kiranmai

Abstract


Background: Immunization is a process in which a person is made resistant to infectious disease, by the administration of vaccine. Immunization is averting an estimated 2-3 million deaths every year. Deaths among under 5 children from measles and its complication is the major killer worldwide. As per 2017 global coverage of measles is 89% and pentavalent (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus) its 85%. Still 71 countries have yet to achieve global vaccine action plan (GVAP) target of 90% coverage of 3 doses of DTP. India is one among these countries with only 63.9% coverage, and the state of Telangana has coverage of 67.5% according to National family health survey-4 (NFHS-4) (2015-2016).

Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted among 12-24 months age children, sample size of 199 is calculated by using the formula of 4pq/l2 and by considering the immunization coverage of 66.7% according to the NFHS-4 (2015-2016) of Telangana state and allowable absolute error of 7% and nonresponsive rate of 10%, simple random sampling technique was used and data collected by using semi-structured questionnaire, data was analysed using MS-office and OpenEpi.

Results: Among 199 study population 136 children were Hindus and 53 were Muslims and 10 from other religion. Mean age and standard deviation of study population was 14±4.56. Among total population 72.9% (145) are completely immunized, 25% (50) are partially immunized 2.04% (4) are unimmunized.

Conclusion: Immunization coverage was higher in the present study then the state of Telangana i.e., 67.5% as per NFHS-4.the rural population.


Keywords


Immunization, Vaccines, Immunization coverage, 12-24 months, Urban slums, Hyderabad

Full Text:

PDF

References


Vaccination and Immunization Statistics-UNICEF Data. 2019. Available at: https://data.unicef.org/ topic/child-health/immunization/. Accessed on 12 May 2020.

Immunization. World Health Organization. 2019. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/facts-in-pictures/detail/immunization. Accessed on 12 May 2020.

Feikin DR, Flannery B, Hamel MJ, Stack M, Hansen PM. Vaccines for children in low- and middle-income countries. Black RE, Laxminarayan R, Temmerman M, Walker N, editors. In: Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health: Disease Control Priorities. 3rd edition. Washington (DC): The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank; 2016:2.

Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Assessment of the inequalities in the immunization coverage: World Health Organization. 2019. Available at: http://www.jmedsoc.org/article.asp? issn=0972-4958;year=2018;volume=32;issue=2; spage=160;epage=161;aulast=Shrivastava. Accessed on 12 May 2020.

WHO immunization coverage factsheets as per 2019. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/immunization-coverage. Accessed on 12 May 2020.

In 2018, 83 countries have not achieved and sustained DTP3 coverage of 90% for at least three years, i.e. 2016, 2017 and 2018. Available at: https://www. who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/who-immuniz.pdf. Accessed on 12 May 2020.

NFHS-4(2015-106) report. 2017. Accessed on 12 May 2020. Available at: http://rchiips.org/nfhs/ NFHS-4Reports/India.pdf. Accessed on 12 May 2020.

Murekhar MV, Kamaraj P, Kanagasbai K, Elavarasu G, Rajashekar TD, Boopathi K, et al. Coverage of childhood vaccination among children aged 12-23 months, Tamil Nadu. India. Indian J Med Res. 2017;145:377-86.

Venkatachalam B, Aparna A, Manjula B, Kumar RV, Suryaprabha ML. Factors Influencing Immunization Coverage among Children 12- 23 Months of Age - A Community Based Study. J Dent Med Scien. 2015;14(11):48-55.

Singh CM, Mishra A, Ayub A. Immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 months: A cross sectional study in low performing blocks of Bihar, India. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2019;8(12):3949-55.