A cross sectional study on prescribing pattern for children at primary health care clinics

Archana Jorige, Lohitha B., Lavanya S. L.


Background: Rational prescribing for pediatrics is very essential as there is increased risk from the use of medicines in them due to multiple reasons ranging from altered pharmacokinetics to long-term side effects. Drug related needs of children must be assessed on individual basis to meet appropriate health care out comes. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing drug use pattern and rationality in prescribing pattern as per World Health Organization (WHO) core prescribing indicators.

Methods: A cross-sectional and prospective study was carried out in private primary health care clinics of Hyderabad, Telangana State. A total number of 300 prescriptions for children were reviewed. Patients' demographic characters, diagnosis, and drugs prescribed were recorded in a pre-structured and validated data collection form.

Results: Average number of drugs per prescription is 1.92. Fever and upper respiratory tract infections were found to be common complaints in this age group. Paracetamol is the mostly prescribed medication and among prescribed antibiotics, Fluroquinolones occupied major part. 67.3% of drugs were from the WHO model list of essential medicines for children. The percentage of drugs prescribed with generic names is very less.

Conclusions: In this study it was found that the prescription pattern in the selected primary healthcare centers in Hyderabad was in compliance with the WHO prescribing indicators except the generic prescribing practice.


Antibiotics, Demographic characters, Pediatrics, Prescribing indicators

Full Text:



Lalan BK, Hiray RS, Ghongane BB. Drug prescribing pattern of out-patient department ina tertiary care hospital in Maharastra. Int J Pharma Bio Sci. 2012;3:225-9.

Foliaki S, Pearce N, Björkstén B, Mallol J, Montefort S, Mutius VE. Antibiotic use in infancy and symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in children 6 and 7 years old: International study of asthma and allergies in childhood phase III. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124(5):982-9.

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children. First list, WHO. 2007

Murphy R, Stewart AW, Braithwaite I, Beasley R, Hancox RJ, Mitchell EA. Antibiotic treatment during infancy and increased body mass index in boys: an international cross-sectional study. Int J Obes. 2014;38(8):1115-9.

World Health Organization model list of essential medicines for children. 2019.

Jasim AL. Parental self-medication of antibiotics for children in Baghdad city. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;6:485-9.

World Health Organization. How to investigate drug use in health facilities: selected drug use indicators. WHO/DAP. Geneva: World Health Organization. 1993: 1-87.

Daniel WW. John Wiley and Sons; Biostatistics: a foundation for analysis in the health sciences; 7th edition. New York: 1999.

Thiruthopu NS, Mateti UV, Bairi R, Sivva D, Martha S. Drug utilization pattern in South Indian pediatric population: a prospective study. Perspect Clin Res. 2014;5(4):178.

Akhtar MS, Vohora D, Pillai K, Dubey K, Roy M, Najmi A, et al. Drug prescribing practices in paediatric department of a North Indian university teaching hospital. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012;5(1):146-9.

Malpani AK, Waggi M, Rajbhandari A, Kumar GA, Nikitha R, Chakravarthy AK. Study on prescribing pattern of antibiotics in a pediatric out-patient department in a tertiary care teaching and non-teaching hospital. IJOPP. 2016;9(4):253.

Pradeepkumar B, Alameri T, Narayana G, Reddy YP, Ramaiah JD. Assessment of antibiotic prescribing pattern in pediatric patients: A cross-sectional hospital-based survey. Chrismed J Health Res. 2017;4(4):235.

Senthilselvi R, Boopana M, Sthyan L. Drug utilization pattern in paediatric patients in a secondary care hospital. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2019;11(4):69-74.

Pandey AA, Thakre SB, Bhatkule PR. Prescription analysis of pediatric outpatient practice in Nagpur city. Indian J Community Med. 2010;35(1):70.

Vallano A, Montane E, Arnau JM, Vidal X. Medical specialty and pattern of medicines prescription. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;60:725-30.

Roy V, Gupta U, Gupta M, Agarwal AK. Prescribing practices in private health facilities in Delhi (India). Indian J Pharmacol. 2013;45(5):534.