DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20202018

Outbreak of kala azar: our experience in South Sudan

Maninder Pal Singh Pardal, Rajiva ., Godwin O. Orkeh

Abstract


Background: Worldwide kala azar affects around 500,000 people every year with at least 50,000 deaths annually. Gedaref state in east Sudan is the epicentre of visceral leishmaniasis in east Africa. Objectives of this study were to describe the outbreak of kala azar in South Sudan, from August 2009 to July 2010, in terms of person and time distribution and to describe the outbreak of kala azar in South Sudan, from August 2009 to Jul 2010, in terms of frequency of various clinical features and outcome

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at South Sudan with cases of kala azar affected during an outbreak in South Sudan from August 2009 to July 2010. Statistical analysis was percentage.

Results: This outbreak indicates the emergence or re-emergence of kala azar in South Sudan. Within the restrictions on movement because of the civil war, further research is needed to investigate the extent of the transmission zone and whether other populations in South Sudan have been infected and have no access to treatment.

Conclusions: There is lack of awareness regarding dog bite and its management among the rural population.


Keywords


Kala azar, Outbreak, South Sudan, Splenomegaly

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Report. East African countries struggle with visceral leishmaniasis. Lancet. 2009;374:371-2.

Kolaczinski JH, Hope A, Ruiz AJ, Rumunu J, Richer M, Seaman J. Kala-azar Epidemiology and Control, Southern Sudan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(4):664-6.

Sundar S, Chakravarty J, Agarwal D, Rai M, Murray HW. Single-dose liposomal amphotericin B for visceral leishmaniasis in India. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:504-12.

Perea AW, Moren A, Ancelle T, Sondorp E. Epidemic visceral leishmaniasis in Southern Sudan letter. The Lancet. 1989:1222-3.

Moszynski P. Health organisation warns that kala-azar has returned to South Sudan. The Lancet. 2002;360:1672.

Knapp RG, Miller MC. Clinical epidemiology and biostatistics. The national medical series for independent study. Malvern, Pa.: Harwal Publishing Company; 1992.

Ibrahim EM. Population genetics. The epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis. The epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in East Africa: hints and molecular revelations. Trans The Royal Soci Trop Med Hyg. 2002;96 (1 Suppl):25S-29S.

Hassan AE, Hashim FA, Ali MS, Ghalib HW And Zijlstra EE. Kala azar in western upper nile province in the southern sudan and its spread to a nomadic tribe in the north. Trans The Royal Soci Trop Med Hyg. 1993;87:395-8.

Collin S, Davidson R, Ritmeijer K, Keus K, Melaku Y, Kipngetich S, Davies C. Conflict and kala-azar: determinants of adverse outcomes of kala-azar among patients in Southern Sudan. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:612-9.

Blackwell JM, Mohamed HS, Ibrahim ME. Genetics and visceral leishmaniasis in the Sudan: seeking a link. Trends Parasitol. 2004;20(6):268-74.

Mercer A, Seaman J and Sondorp E. Kala azar in eastern upper nile province, Southern Sudan letter. The Lancet. 1995;345:187-8.

Herrero M, Orfanos G, Argaw D, Mulugeta A, Aparicio P, Parreno F, et al. Natural History of a Visceral Leishmaniasis Outbreak in Highland Ethiopia. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2009;81(3):373-7.