DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20201456

Primary care-based prevalence of cutaneous lesions among type 2 diabetes mellitus in urban areas of Belagavi, India

Chippagiri Soumya, Sanjay Kambar, Shivkumar Patil

Abstract


Background: Diabetic complications affects every organ and skin is no exception. Cutaneous signs are extremely valuable to physicians as some alert the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and reflect on glycemic control and lipid metabolism. To estimate the prevalence of cutaneous lesions in urban areas of Belagavi and to find the associated factors.   

Methods: Data was collected from type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending Primary care Urban Health Centre. Current diabetics from the Diabetic Register, maintained in the Urban Health Centres were included, and patients’ medical records were reviewed for information regarding duration, medications and complications of diabetes. Information about socio-demographic profile, general physical examination, systemic and cutaneous examination were recorded using validated, predesigned and pretested proforma. All patients were asked detailed history regarding skin complaints, duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus, family history and treatment of diabetes mellitus. All cases underwent cutaneous examination under natural light. Cases where diagnosis was doubtful were confirmed by the Department of Dermatology at K.L.E.’s Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital & Medical Research Centre.

Results: Of 180 study participants, average age was 59.88±11.06 years and 74.44% were females. 2.56±0.99 years was the mean duration of diabetes and 89.44% were on oral hypoglycemic agents. Prevalence of cutaneous manifestations was found to 48.88%. The cutaneous lesions were asymptomatic in majority of the participants (48.86%) and progressive 48 (54.5%).

Conclusions: Cutaneous manifestation were highly prevalent and requires for the physician to be vigilant.


Keywords


Cutaneous lesions, Diabetes mellitus, Prevalence study, Urban, India

Full Text:

PDF

References


Global Report on Diabetes; World Health Organization, 2016.

Seema Abhijeet Kaveeshwar, Jon Cornwall. The current state of diabetes mellitus in India; Australasian Med J. 2014;7(1):45-8.

H Seirafi, K Farsinejad, A Firooz, SM Davoudi, RM Robati, MS Hoseini, AH Ehsani, B Sadr. Biophysical characteristics of skin in diabetes: a controlled study. J European Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009;23(2):146-9.

Fitzpatcrik's Dermatology in General Medicine. 7th Edition. 461-1470.

Erich Urbach. Skin diabetes: hyperglycodermia without hyperglycemia, J Am Med Assoc. 1945;129(6) 438-440.

M. Greenwood. A study of the skin in five hundred cases of diabetes; J Am Med Assoc. 1927;89(10):774-6.

Shahzad M, Robaee AA, Al Shobaili HA, Alzolibani AA, Abdullah A, Al Marshood, Al Moteri B. Skin Manifestations in Diabetic Patients Attending a Diabetic Clinic in the Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia; Med Principles Pract. 2011;20:137-41.

Zamaz Wahid, Anjum Kanjee. Cutaneous Manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus. J Pakistan Med Assoc. 1998;48(304):304-5.

Miranda A. Farage, Kenneth W. Miller, Peter Elsner, Howard I. Maibach. Characteristics of the Aging Skin. Adv Wound Care. 2013;2(1):5-10.

Kligman AM and Koblenzer C: Demographics and psychological implications for the aging population. Dermatologic Clin. 1997;15(4):549-53.

Juma M. Al-Kaabi, Fatma Al Maskari, Paul Craggc, Bachar Afandi, Abdul-Kader Souidd. Illiteracy and diabetic foot complications. Primary Care Diabetes. 2015;470.

Chatterjee N, Chattopadhyay C, Sengupta N, Das C, Sarma N, Pal SK. An observational study of cutaneous manifestations in diabetes mellitus in a tertiary care Hospital of Eastern India. Indian J Endocrinol Metabolism. 2014;18(2):217-20.

Vahora R, Thakkar S, Marfatia Y. Skin, a mirror reflecting diabetes mellitus: A longitudinal study in a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat. Indian J Endocrinology Metabolism. 2013;17(4):659-64.

Ragunatha S, Anitha B, Inamadar AC, Palit A, Devarmani SS. Cutaneous disorders in 500 diabetic patients attending diabetic clinic. Indian J Dermatol. 2011;56(2):160-4.

Kadam MN, Soni PN, Phatale S, Siddramappa B. A study of cutaneous manifestations associated with diabetes mellitus. International J Adv in Med. 2016;3(2):296-303.

Baloch GH, Memon NM, Devrajani BR, Pervez Iqbal P, Thebo NK. Cutaneous manifestations of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J Liaquat University Med Health Sci. 2008;7(2):67-70.

Ahmed K, Muhammad Z, Qayum I, J AyubJ. Prevalence of cutaneous manifestations of Diabetes mellitus. J Ayub Med College Abbottabad. 2009;21(2):76-9.

Raghav A, Khan ZA, Labala RK, Ahmad J, Noor S Mishra BK. Financial burden of diabetic foot ulcers to world: a progressive topic to discuss always, Therapeutic Adv Endocrinol Metabolism. 2016;9(1):29-31.