DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20195498

Outbreak investigation of acid fly attack among residential students in a tertiary care centre in South India

Devraj Ramakrishnan, Leyanna Susan George, Arun Jacob, Harsha Lais, Midhun Rajeev, K. N. Panicker, Vishal Marwaha

Abstract


Paederus dermatitis is the skin irritation resulting from contact with the haemolymph of certain rove beetles, a group that is comprised by the genus Paederus. In May 2018, there was an increase in the number of residential students reporting with burning skin lesions. In this context, an outbreak investigation was conducted. A team of public health specialists visited these residential buildings and premises. The inmates who were affected were interviewed and examined. Suspected insects were collected and entomologically evaluated by the Zoological Survey of India. On examination of the affected individuals, it was observed that the rashes were very much suggestive of acid fly toxin induced lesions. Inspection of the premises, revealed small heaps of dried leaves with moisture at two sites which could have served as a suitable environment for acid fly multiplication. Our study concluded that Paederus fuscipes as the causative agent. Top storeys of buildings, illuminated at night, facing potentially wet areas were considered to be the potential risk factor. Fly proofing of the building, cleaning the institution premises and chemical treatment was suggested as appropriate control measures.


Keywords


Outbreak investigation, Acid fly, Paederus dermatitis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Insect Bites: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology. 2018 Jul 26. Available from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/769067-overview. Accessed on 16 December 2018.

Insect bites and stings. nhs.uk. 2017. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/insect-bites-and-stings/. Accessed on 16 December 2018.

Singh S, Mann BK. Insect bite reactions. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2013;79(2):151.

Bolognia JL, Jean L. Bolognia JLJRPR, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP. Dermatology. Elsevier Health Sciences; Available from: https://books.google.co.in/books? id=f2IwYiyh3YUC. Accessed on 16 December 2018.

Mullen GR, Durden LA. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Elsevier Science; 2002. Available at: https://books.google.co.in/books?id=6R1v9o-uaI4C

Singh G, Ali SY. Paederus dermatitis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007;73(1):13.

Srihari S, Kombettu AP, Rudrappa KG, Betkerur J. Paederus Dermatitis: A Case Series. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2017;8(5):361-4.

Toppo NA, Bhadoria AS, Kasar PK, Trivedi A. Paederus dermatitis among residents of nursing hostel in central India: An outbreak investigation. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2013;4(2):153-5.

Uzunoğlu E, Oguz ID, Kir B, Akdemir C. Clinical and Epidemiological Features of Paederus Dermatitis Among Nut Farm Workers in Turkey. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 08;96(2):483-7.

Maryam S, Fadzly N, Amirul AAA, Zuharah WF. Attraction factors for Paederus fuscipes’ dispersal, a vector of Paederus dermatitis towards human residential premises. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2017 Apr 3;59:e4.

Padhi T, Mohanty P, Jena S, Sirka CS, Mishra S. Clinicoepidemiological profile of 590 cases of beetle dermatitis in western Orissa. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007;73(5):333-5.

Alva-Davalos V, Laguna-Torres VA, Huaman A, Olivos R, Chavez M, Garcia C, et al. Epidemic dermatits by Paederus irritans in Piura, Perú at 1999, related to El Niño phenomenon. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2002;35(1):23-8.