DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20200461

Children commute to schools in Bangalore urban and rural districts: travel pattern, behaviour and perceptions

Manjunatha ., Pallavi Sarji Uthkarsh, Gangaboraiah .

Abstract


Background: Children form vulnerable road users during their regular school commute. School children safety is not taken into consideration before construction of road network. The total number of persons injured in India during 2015 near schools or colleges or educational institutions due to road traffic accidents are 13,270 in urban areas according to National Crime Records Bureau which is quite alarming. Current study is the first attempt in both rural and urban Karnataka towards understanding travel pattern, behaviour and perceptions among school children during commute to schools. The objectives of the present study were to assess travel pattern, behaviour and perception of school children in Bangalore urban and rural districts and to assess factors associated with travel pattern.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using a representative sample of schools selected by simple random sampling. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire which was analysed using SPSS version 20.

Results: Nearly 86% of school children travelled less than 5 kms to reach their schools. Nearly 39% of school children travelled alone to school. Most common mode of travel to school was by walk. Nearly 27.4% did not cross the main roads safely. Adherence to road safety behaviour was insufficient. Vehicular traffic was perceived as a major apprehension by children during school commute.

Conclusions: Commute of children to schools in both urban and rural part of Bangalore was unsafe with least adherence to safety measures, which might increase their vulnerability to road traffic injuries.


Keywords


Injury, Accident, Road traffic injuries, Travel pattern, School children, Behaviour, Perceptions

Full Text:

PDF

References


WHO UNICEF. World report on child injury prevention. World Health Organisation. 2008;14:203.

NCRB, Ministry of home affairs I. Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India 2015. NCRB, Ministry of Home Affairs; 2016. Available at: http://ncrb.nic. in/StatPublications/ADSI/ADSI2015/adsi-2015-full-report.pdf. Accessed on 15 April 2019.

Mohan DGT. Road safety in india status report. Tripp IIT Delhi; 2015. Available at: http://webcomipl.net/kp/pdf/1488374095road_safety_in_India_status_report.pdf. Accessed on 15 April 2019.

NCMH, Mo HFW G. Burden of disease in India. In: Lal PG, eds. Report of the National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. New Delhi, India: Cirrus Graphics Private Limited; 2005: 388.

Bangalore. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Bangalore. Accessed on 15 April 2019.

Chotani H, Luby S, Mirza SMM. Risky behavior of bus commuters and bus drivers in Karachi, Pakistan. Accid Anal Prev. 1999;31(4):329-33.

Hillman M, Adams J, Whitelegg J. One false move. A study of children’s independent mobility. Worcester: Billing and Sons Ltd; 1990: 187.

Tetali S, Edwards P, Murthy GVS, Roberts I. Development and validation of a self-administered questionnaire to estimate the distance and mode of children’s travel to school in urban India. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2015;15(1):1-7.

Mendoza JA, Watson K, Baranowski T, Nicklas TA, Uscanga DK, Hanfling MJ. Validity of instruments to assess students’ travel and pedestrian safety. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:257.

Tetali S. Distance, transport mode, and road safety on school journeys in urban India. Available at: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/3449897/. Accessed on 15 April 2019.

Nelson NM, Foley E, Gorman DJO. Active commuting to school: How far is too far?. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008;5(1):9.

Cordovil R. Children â€TMs (in) dependent mobility in Portugal, 2015. Available at: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1685152210/81DA8F621CEB4DC7PQ/1?accountid=60975.

University of Westminster. No Title. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/only-25-per-cent-of-children-walk-to-school-alone-compared-to-86-per-cent-in-1971-what-went-wrong-8452266.html. Accessed on 15 April 2019. Accessed on 15 April 2019.

Mammen G, Faulkner G, Buliung R, Lay J. Understanding the drive to escort: A cross-sectional analysis examining parental attitudes towards children’s school travel and independent mobility. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):1.

Tetali S, Edwards P, Roberts GVSMI. How do children travel to school in urban India? A cross-sectional study of 5, 842 children in Hyderabad. BMC Public Health. 2016: 1-8.

Wen LM, Fry D, Rissel C, Dirkis H, Balafas A, Merom D. Factors associated with children being driven to school: implications for walk to school programs. Heal Educ Res Oxford. 2008;23(2):325-34.

Gururaj G. Growing burden and impact of road crashes in India: need for a safe systems approach. Int J Veh Saf. 2014;7(3-4):282-95.

Zhu X. Correlates of walking to school and implications for public policies, 2009. Available at: https://search.proquest.com/docview/233372679/A8AC9CC3737C4F1FPQ/6?accountid=60975. Accessed on 15 April 2019.

Selim KA, Hossain MA, Kumar SP, Reaz MS, Ayesha B, Ali MA, et al. Crossing busy city roads by pedistrian school-bound children: how vulnerable they remain for fatal RTAS in Bangladesh. Inj Prev. 2012;18(S1):A106.3-107.

University of Iowa; Why children struggle to cross busy streets safely. NewsRx Heal Atlanta (Atlanta), 2017.

Swami HM, Puri SVB. Road Safety Awareness and practice among school children of Chandigarh. Indian J Community Med. 2006;31(3):199-200.

Berg P, Westerling R. Bicycle helmet use among school children- the influence of parental involvement and children’s attitudes. Inj Prev. 2001;7(3):218-22.

Dong X, Peek-Asa C, Yang J, Wang S, Chen X, Chi G, et al. The association of road safety knowledge and risk behaviour with paediatric road traffic injury in Guangzhou, China. Inj Prev. 2011;17(1):15-20.