Assessment of quality of life among stroke survivors: a longitudinal study

Babitha Rajan, S. Pruthvish, K. Lalitha, Murali Tyloth, N. S. Murthy


Background: Quality of life (QoL) among stroke survivors is a concern which has not received sufficient attention in India. The objective of the study was to assess the quality of life of stroke survivors in rural population of Chikkaballapur district, Karnataka.

Methods: A community based longitudinal study was done amongst the 150 incident stroke cases registered during the period from March 2013 to November 2014 and who survived beyond 28 days. The cases were enrolled and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire and were followed up for 6th month period. QoL was assessed at baseline (at 28 days), at 3rd month and 6th Month using Stroke Specific QoL scale (SSQoL) and Barthel index (BI).

Results: The mean age of the persons with stroke was 61.3±15 years with a majority being males (69.3%). Baseline median score (IQR) of SSQoL at 28th day was poor i.e. 131 (77-183). Among the 150 cases, 136 (91%) survived until the end of 6th month. The overall QOL gradually improved to 182 (133-213) and 185 (147-213) at 3rd and 6th month respectively and similar improvement was seen individually in physical, psychological and social domains as well and on multivariate logistic regression age <60 years and few disturbed consciousness among the stroke survivors during the 6th month follow up were found to be predictors for improved quality of life.

Conclusions: QoL showed significant improvements in all physical, psychological and social domains by the end of the 6th month of follow up.


Stroke survivors, Longitudinal study, Rural area, Quality of life, Stroke specific quality of life scale, Risk factors, Physical domain, Psychological domain, Social domain, Population based stroke registry, Non communicable disease. Barthel index

Full Text:



Hatano S. Experience from a multicentre stroke register:a preliminary report. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation. 1976;54(5):541–53.

World Health Organisation. 2017. Available at: Accessed on 27 August 2017.

Stroke fact sheet India. Available at: http://www. Accessed on 25 August 2017.

Paul LS, Sturm WJ, Dewey MH. Long term outcome in the North East Melbourne stroke incidence study: Predictors of quality of life at 5 years after stroke. Stroke J Amer Heart Asso (serial online) 2000;36:2082-6.

Hopman WM, Verner J. Quality of life during and after inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Stroke. 2003;34:801–5.

Jaracz K, Kozubski W. Quality of life in stroke patients. Acta Neurol Scand. 2003;107:324-9.

Larsen NSD, Clark PC, Zeringue A, Greenspan A, Blanton S. Factors Influencing Stroke Survivors’ Quality of Life during Subacute Recovery. Stroke. 2005;36:1480-4.

Jonsoson AC, Lindgren I, Hallstrom B, Norrving B Lindgren A. Determinants of Quality of Life in Stroke survivors and Their informal caregivers. Stroke. 2005;36:803-8.

WHOQOL: Measuring Quality of Life. Available at: Accessed on 25 August 2017

Chang AM, Mackenzie AE. State self-esteem following stroke. Stroke. 1998;29:2325–8.

Eccles S, House A, Knapp P. Psychological adjustment and self-reported coping in stroke survivors with and without emotionalism. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych. 1999;67:125–6.

Ghika-Schmid F, van Melle G, Guex P, Bogousslavsky J. Subjective experience and behaviour in acute stroke: The Lausanne Emotion in Acute Stroke Study. Neurology. 1999;52:22–8.

Browne JP, O’Boyle CA, McGee HM, Joyce CR, McDonald NJ, O’Malley K, et al. Individual quality of life in the healthy elderly. Qual Life Res. 1994;3:235–44.

The WHOQoL Group Development of the World Health Organization WHOQoL- BREF quality of life assessment. Psychol Med. 1998b;28:551–8.

WHOQoL GROUP. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQoL):position paper from the World Health Organization. Soc Sci Med. 1995;41:1403–9.

Viitanen M, Fugl-Meyer KS, Bernspång B, Fugl-Meyer AR. Life satisfaction in long-term survivors after stroke. Scand J Rehab Med. 1988;20:17–24.

Artal CJ, Egido AJ, Gonzalez LJ, Seijas dVE. Quality of life among stroke survivors evaluated 1 year after stroke: Experience of stroke unit. Stroke. 2000;31:2995-3000.

Mangal A, Kumar V, Panesar S, Talwar R, Raut D, Singh S. BG Prasad socioeconomic classification, 2014: A commentary. Indian J Public Health. 2015;59:42–4.

Williams LS, Weinberger M, Harris LE, Biller J. Development of a Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale) Measuring quality of life in a way that is meaningful to stroke patients. Neurology. 1999;53(8):1839-43.

Mahoney FI, Barthel D. Functional evaluation:The Barthel Index. Maryland State Med J. 1965;14:56-61.

Dalal PM. Burden of stroke - Indian perspective. J Association of Physicians of India. 2004;52:695–6.

Prasad K. Singhal KK. Stroke in young: An Indian perspective. 2010;58(3)343-50.

Ain UQ, Dar ZN, Ahmad A, Munzar S, Yousafzai AW. Caregiver stress in stroke survivor:data from a tertiary care hospital -a cross sectional survey. BMC Psychology. 2014;2:49.

Das SK, Banerjee TK, Biwa’s A. Stroke- Indian Scenario. 2008;118:2719-24.

Chandran P, Shenoy D, Thavody J, Lialbi PM. Assessment of quality of life of stroke survivors in a rural area of North Kerala, India. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017;4(3):841-6.