Predictors of job motivation among doctors and nurses in a tertiary hospital in Sokoto, Nigeria

Aminu U. Kaoje, Bello A. Magaji, Mansur O. Raji, Remi A. Oladigbolu, Mansur B. K. Mohammed, Mohammed Sani, Zakeeyu B. Yahya


Background: Doctors and nurses are the largest and very important human resources for health within health service organizations; therefore their performance will impact the overall organizational performance. The study was aimed to assess the predictors of job motivation among Doctors and nurses of a tertiary hospital.

Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 334 doctors and nurses. Multi-stage sampling method was used to select study respondents and self-administered questionnaires developed based on Maslow and Herzberg theories of motivation. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the predictors of job motivation. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05.

Results: The motivators were ranked in order of importance from achievement factors, remuneration, job attributes and co-workers. Linear regression revealed only respondents’ designation significantly predicted job attributes as a motivating factor. Doctors were less likely to be motivated by their job attributes compared with nurses (p=0.03). Sex (p=0.01) and holding managerial position (p=0.001) predicted remuneration as a motivating factor for doctors and nurses. Disaggregation by profession showed, only holding managerial position (p=0.02) predicted remuneration as a motivating factor for doctors while for nurses, predictors were sex (p=0.001) and holding managerial position (p=0.02). Co-workers as a motivating factor for all groups were predicted by holding managerial position (p=0.01) and designation (p=0.03).

Conclusions: Motivation was influenced by both financial (remuneration) and non-financial incentives (achievements). Healthcare professionals tend to be motivated more by non-financial factors, implying that this should be a cogent strategy for effective employee management.


Predictors, Job motivation, Doctors, Nurses, Sokoto

Full Text:



Robbins SP, Judge TA. Organizational behavior. 15th ed. America: Prentice Hall; 2013.

Hotchkiss DR, Banteyerga H, Tharaney M. Job satisfaction and motivation among public sector health workers: evidence from Ethiopia. Hum Res He. 2015;13:83.

Lambrou P, Kontodimopoulos N, Niakas D. Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital. Hum Res He. 2010;8(26):1-8.

Buchbinder S, Shanks N. Introduction to Health Care Management. Management and Motivation. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett; 2007.

Velmurugan TA, Sankar JG. A Comparative Study on Motivation Theory with Maslow’s Hierarchy theory and Two-factor theory in Organization. Indo-Iranian J Sci Res. 2017;1(1):204-8.

Mbilinyi D, Daniel LM, Lie GT. Health worker motivation in the context of HIV care and treatment challenges in Mbeya Region, Tanzania: a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:266.

Peters DH, Chakraborty S, Mahapatra P, Steinhardt L. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states. Hum Res He. 2010;8:27.

Prytherch H, Kagone M, Aninanya GA, Williams JE, Kakoko DC, Leshabari MT, et al. Motivation and incentives of rural maternal and neonatal health care providers: A comparison of qualitative findings from Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. BMC Health Services Res. 2013;13:149.

Mutale W, Ayles H, Bond V, Mwanamwenge MT, Balabanova D. Measuring health workers' motivation in rural health facilities: baseline results from three study districts in Zambia. Hum Res He. 2013;11:8.

Weldgebreal Z, Yohannes E, Weldgebreal F, and Woldie M. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2016;10:159–69.

Ibeziako OJ, Chabikuli ON, Olorunju S. Hospital reform and staff morale in South Africa: a case study of Dr. Yusuf Dadoo Hospital. S Afr Fam Pract. 2013;55(2):180-3.

Federal Ministry of Health Nigeria. National Human Resources for Health Strategic Plan 2008-2012, Abuja, Nigeria. 2007.

Kigwangalla HA. Job Motivation and Associated Factors among Health Workers in Urban Public Hospitals in Tanzania. Ble Inst Tech Mas The Bus Adm. 2012;15:19-2.

Anseel F, Stinglhamber F. Introduction to the special issue on work motivation. Psych Belg. 2008;48(3):63-4.

Tsounis A, Sarafisand P, Bamidis P. Motivation among Physicians in Greek Public Health Care Sector. Brit J Med and Med Res. 2014;4(5):1094-105.

Araoye OM. Research methodologies with Statistics for Health and Social Sciences. Ilorin, Mathadex Publishers. 2003: 423.

International Migration Outlook. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2015. Available at: Accessed on 21 December 2018.

Kontodimopoulos N, Paleologou V, Niakas D. Identifying important motivational factors for professionals in Greek hospitals. BMC Health Services Research. 2009;9:164.

Shafiq MM, Naseem MA. Association between Reward and Employee Motivation: A case study Banking Sector of Pakistan, 2011 Available at: Accessed on 21 December 2018.

Gaki E, Kontodimopoulos N, Niakas D. Investigating demographic, work-related and job satisfaction variables as predictors of motivation in Greek nurses. J Nur Management. 2013;21:483-90.

Lindfors PM, Meretoja OA, Luukkonen RA, Elovainio MJ, Leino TJ. Attitudes to job turnover among Finnish anaesthetists. Occup Med (Lond). 2009;59:126-9.

Labiris G, Gitona K, Drosou V, Niakas D. A proposed Instrument for the Assessment of Job Satisfaction in Greek Mental NHS Hospitals. J Med Syst. 2008;32:333-41.