DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20184745

Non-adherence to foot-care activities and its associated factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in an urban area of South India: a cross sectional study

Mounica Chappidi, Priyadarshini Chidambaram, Shalini Sivananjiah, Shivaraj Nallur Somanna

Abstract


Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the commonest metabolic disorder with prevalence of 8.3% in India. The prognosis largely depends on complications seen in natural course of illness. Stringent adherence to self-care activities is a mandatory step in management of T2DM. Hence, this study was done to assess non-adherence to foot-care activities among patients with T2DM for associated factors and also to report findings of foot examination among non-adherent participants.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban area of Bengaluru. Using multi-stage sampling, 400 people with T2DM aged ≥18 years were selected. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding non-adherence to foot-care activities and foot examination was done for all the participants.

Results: Though all the participants were aware regarding the foot-care activities, 86.7% of participants were not adherent. Females and those with lower monthly income had 2.91 and 3.47 significantly higher odds of being non-adherent to foot-care activities, respectively.

Conclusions: The prevalence of non-adherence to foot-care activities among people with T2DM was observed to be high. Hence, more importance should be given to motivate people with T2DM in their follow-up visits regarding adherence to foot-care activities to avoid occurrence of complications.


Keywords


Non-adherence, Foot-care activities, Associated factors, Diabetes mellitus, Self-care

Full Text:

PDF

References


IDF Diabetes Atlas. 6th Edition. International Diabetes Federation, 2014. Available from: https://www.idf.org/sites/default/files/Atlas-poster-2014_EN.pdf. Accessed on 20 September 2016.

Longo DL, Kasper DL, Jameson JL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Loscalzo J. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th Edition. United States of America: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc; 2012.

Piette JD, Kerr EA. The impact of comorbid chronic conditions on diabetes care. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:725–31.

Chappidi M, Sivananjiah S, Thirthahalli C, Kunnavil R, Murthy NS. Complications of diabetes mellitus among patients attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2018;5:341-8.

The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot. International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot and Practical Guidelines on the Management and Prevention of the Diabetic Foot (CD-Rom). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot, 2007.

Andrew J, Gunne R, Jan A. The global burden of diabetic foot disease. Lancet. 2005;366:1719–24.

Jeffcoate WJ, Harding KG. Diabetic foot ulcers. Lancet. 2003;361:1545–51.

Suguna A, Abijith SM, Stany A, Sulekha T, Prethesh K. Evaluation of self-care practices among diabetic patients in a rural area of Bangalore district, India. Int J Curr Res Aca Rev. 2015;3(6):415-22.

Saurabh S, Sarkar S, Selvaraj K, Kar SS, Kumar SG, Roy G. Effectiveness of foot-care education among people with type 2 diabetes in rural Puducherry, India. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2014;18:106-10.

Dasappa H, Fathima F, Prabhakar R, Sarin S. Prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes and assessments of their risk factors in urban slums of Bangalore. J Family Med Prim Care. 2015;4(3):399.

Censuskarnataka.gov.in. Directorate of Census Operations. 2015. Available at: http://census karnataka.gov.in/final_pca2011_vil_ward.htm. Accessed on 30 September 2016.

Toobert DJ, Hampson SE, Glasgow RE. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure Results from 7 studies and a revised scale. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(7):943-50.

ICMR.nic.in. Guidelines for Management of Type 2 Diabetes. 2005. Available at: http://icmr.nic.in/ guidelines_diabetes/guide_diabetes.htm. Accessed on 30 September 2016.

Rajasekharan D, Kulkarni V, Unnikrishnan B, Kumar N, Holla R, Thapar R. Self-care Activities Among Patients with Diabetes Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mangalore Karnataka, India. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2015;5(1):59-64.

Kar S, Santhanakrishnan I, Lakshminarayanan S. Factors affecting compliance to management of diabetes in Urban Health Center of a tertiary care teaching hospital of south India. J Natural Sci Biol Med. 2014;5(2):365.

Timethia B, Foster M, Lanoix ES. Type 2 diabetes related foot-care knowledge and foot self-care practice interventions in the United States: a systematic review of the literature. Diabetic Foot Ankle. 2016;7:29758.

NetaI DSR, Roberta VA, Grazielle RF. Adherence to foot self-care in diabetes mellitus patients. Rev Bras Enferm. 2015;68(1):103-8.

Jinadasa CVM, Jeewantha M. A study to determine the knowledge and practice of foot-care in patients with chronic diabetic ulcers. Int J Collaborative Res Internal Med Public Health. 2011;3:115-22.

Zubair M, Malik A, Ahmad J. Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Review. Am J Internal Med. 2015;3(2):28-49.

Matricciani L, Jones S. Who cares about foot-care? Barriers and enablers of foot self-care practices among non-institutionalized older adults diagnosed with diabetes: an integrative review. Diabetes Educ. 2015;41:106-17.

Funnell MM, Brown TL, Childs BP, Haas LB, Hosey GM, Jensen B, et al. National standards for diabetes self-management education. Diabetes Care 2009;32(1):87-94.

Ollendorf DA, Kotsanos JG, Wishner WJ, Friedman M, Cooper T, Bittoni WJ, et al. Potential economic benefits of lower extremity amputation prevention strategies in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:1240-55.