Variations in point prevalence of diabetes, basal metabolic rate, body mass index, blood pressure and peripheral oxygen saturation in non-smoking household cigar workers in comparison to non-smoking general population: a cross sectional comparative study

Naveena Thotakura


Background: The aim was to investigate the prevalence of diabetes in non-smoking cigar workers and non smoking general population. Additional Objective was to assess the variations in Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), Body Mass Index (BMI), Blood Pressure, Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) in non-smoking cigar workers and non smoking General Population.

Methods: Anthrapometric variables (height, weight, BMI), BMR, Random Blood Glucose (by portable glucometer), Blood Pressure (digital sphygmomanometer), Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (portable fingertip oximeter) were determined.

Results: 17% of non-smoking cigar workers and 7% of non-smoking general population were diabetic respectively. (p<0.05, χ2= 4.735). Overall increase in means of Random Blood Glucose Level, Systolic Blood Pressure, Diastolic Blood Pressure, Mean Arterial Pressure, Rate Pressure Product and decrease in means of Peripheral Oxygen Saturation was recorded in nonsmoking cigar workers compared to non smoking general population which was statistically significant with p<0.05. Prevalence rates of Prehypertension, Stage - I Hypertension, Stage - II Hypertension was found to be 27%, 44% and 13% in non smoking cigar workers and 37%, 21%, 9% in non-smoking general population.(p<0.001, χ2=24.228). Prevalence of Prehypertension and Hypertension was statistically significant with the period of service of cigar workers (p=0.05, χ2= 26.279).

Conclusions: Increased prevalence of diabetes, prehypertension and hypertension were found in non-smoking cigar workers. Random Blood Glucose Levels, Systolic Blood Pressure, Diastolic Blood Pressure, Mean Arterial Pressure, Rate Pressure Product were increased and Peripheral Oxygen Saturation was decreased in cigar workers when compared to non smoking general population.



Full Text:



Cigar, 2015. Available at: wiki/Cigar#cite_note-theCigar-11.

How are Cigars different from Cigarettes 2014. Available at: cancer/ cancercauses/ tobaccocancer/cigarsmoking/ cigar-smoking-cigars-vs-cigarettes.

Diaz DD. Critical Differences: Premium Cigars vs Cigarettes, 2007. Available at:http://

International Labour Organisation. Beedi Women Workers in India: New Delhi; 2002.

Mittal S, Mittal A, Rengappa R. Ocular manifestations in bidi industry workers: possible consequences of occupational exposure to tobacco dust. Indian Journal of Opthamology. 2008;16(20): 72-4.

Quandt SA, Thomas AA, John SP, John TB. Deborah N. Environmental and behavioral predictors of salivary cotinine in latino tobacco workers. J Occup Env Med. 2001;43(10):839-926.

Chilero A, Faeh D, Paccaud F, Cornuz J. Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution and insulin resistance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:801-9.

Jensen JA, Goodson WH, Hopt HW, Hunt TK. Cigarette smoking decreases tissue oxygen. Arch Surg. 1991;126(9):1131-4.

Lakka TA, Laaksonen DE, Lakka HM, Männikkö N, Niskanen LK, Rauramaa R, Salonen JT. Sedentary lifestyle, poor cardiorespiratory fitness, and the metabolic syndrome. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2003;35(8):1279-86.

Jeffery S, Albert JS. Socioeconomic status and obesity: a review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin. 1989;105(2):260-75.

Angel M, Bonacho EC, González A, Fernández C. Occupation related differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(9):1884-5.

Our Bureau, Mumbai. Clinical research needed for more effective diabetes treatment: ISCR. Saturday, 2014. Available at:

Abishek R, Jayashree TM, Felix AJW, Ethirajan N, Senthil Murugan TK. Study on frequency and duration of peripheral neuropathy among known case of type ii diabetes mellitus ≥ 30 years in chidambaram urban population. Asian Journal of pharmaceutical research. 2014;4(3):141-5.

Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus, 2015. Available at:

Kaveeshwar SA, Cornwall J. The current state of diabetes mellitus in India. Australas Med J. 2014;7(1):45-8.

Healy GN, Wijndaele K, Dunstan DW, Shaw JE, Salmon J, Zimmet PZ, Owen N. Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity, and metabolic risk. The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Diabetes Care. 2008;31(2):369-71.

Frank B. Hu. Sedentary lifestyle and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Lipids: 2003;38(2):103-8.

Manson AE, Skerrett PJ, Greenland P, VanItallie TB. The escalating pandemics of obesity and sedentary lifestyle a call to action for clinicians. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(3):249-58.

Untoro J, Gross R, Schultink W, Sediaoetama D. The association between BMI and haemoglobin and Work Productivity among Indonesian female factory workers. European Journal of clinical Nutrition. 1998;52:131-5.

Omvik P. How smoking affects blood pressure. blood pressure. 1996;5(2):71-7.

James SA, Strogatz DS, Wing SB, Ramsey DL. Socioeconomic status, john henryism, and hypertension in blacks and whites. Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126(4):664-73.

James SA, Keenan NL, Strogatz DS, Browning SR, Garrett JM. Socioeconomic status, john henryism, and blood pressure in black adult. The Pitt County Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;135(1):59-67.

Colhoun HM, Hemingway H, Poulter NR. Socio-economic status and blood pressure: an overview analysis. Journal of Human Hypertension.1998; 12(2):91-110.

Anchala R, Kannuri NK, Pant H, Khan H, Franco OH, Angelantonio ED, Prabhakarand D. Hypertension in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension. J Hypertens. 2014;32(6):1170-7.

Sesso HD, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Hennekens CH, Gaziano JM, Manson JE, et al. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk in men. Hypertension. 2000;36:801-7.

Gobel FL, Norstrom LA, Nelson RR, Jorgensen CR, Wang Y. The rate-pressure product as an index of myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise in patients with angina pectoris. Circulation. 1978;57:549-56.