A community based comparative cross- sectional study to assess the effects of mobile phone on quality of sleep in smart phone users and non- users in Central India
Keywords:Smart phone, PSQI, Sleep quality
Background: Mobile phones are no longer simply a communication device now-a-days, rather has become an indispensable part of human life. Mobile phones have transformed from necessity to the level of status symbol. Smart phones are a newer generation of cellular phones with integrated computer related functions capable of performing various tasks based on number of applications. The extensive use of smart phones in recent years had led to exposure of human beings to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) which could have adverse effects on sleep. Objectives of the study was to compare the effects of mobile phone on quality of sleep in smart phone users and non- users using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). 2. To educate the study subjects about the hazards of excessive smart phone usage.
Methods: Study design- Prospective cross- sectional comparative study. Study subjects- 166 working class adults working in various offices in Bhopal. Inclusion criteria - Those who were using any type of mobile phones and gave consent to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria -Those who had any recent trauma or chronic illness related to sleep. Ethical consideration-Permission taken from Head of the department of Community Medicine, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal. Verbal consent was obtained from the study participants.
Results: Out of 166 study participants 92 were male and 74 were female of which mostly belonged to the age group of 20-30 years with mean 26.75 years and SD 5.12years. 97.6% were graduate and above. Participants showing a better subjective sleep quality amongst non-users of smart phone was significant (p=0.00185) and the number of participants showing no problem to keep up enough enthusiasm to get things done were more in non-users than users with difference being statistically significant (p=0.0146).Conclusions: We should restrict the use of mobiles to minimum for sound mind and good health.
Bhise AT, Ghatule AA, Ghatule AP. Study of mobile addiction among student’s w.r.t. gender and education.
Ballagas R, Borchers J, Rohs M, Sheridan JG. The smart phone: a ubiquitous input device. Pervasive Computing. 2006;5:70-7.
Michael M, Colin B, Mika K. The health hazards of mobile phones. Br Med J. 2000;320:1288-9.
Burch JB, Reif JS, Noonan CW, Ichinose T, Bachand AM, Koleber TL, et al. Melatonin metabolite excretion among cellular telephone users. Intern J Radiation Biol. 2002:78.
Jarupat S, Kawabata A, Tokura H, Borkiewicz A. Effects of the 1900 MHz electromagnetic field emitted from cellular phone on nocturnal melatonin secretion. J Physiol Anthropol. 2003;22:61-3.
Buysse, DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. (PSQI):Psychiat Res. 1989; 28:193-213.
Demirci K, Akgönül M, Akpinar A. Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. J Behav Addict. 2015;4(2):85-92.
Sanjay D, Harish S, Bhagwat AK, Arpita B, Abhilasha G, Alia KZ, and Akansha S. A study to evaluate mobile phone dependence among students of a medical college and associated hospital of central India. Ind J Comm Med. 2010:35.
Hutter HP, Moshammer H, Wallner P, Kundi M. Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations. Occup Environ Med. 2006;63(5):307-13.
Lemola S, Perkinson-Gloor N, Brand S, Dewald-Kaufmann JF, Grob A. Adolescents' electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age. J Youth Adolesc. 2015;44(2):405-18.
Higuchi S, Motohashi Y, Liu Y, Ahara M, Kaneko Y. Effects of VDT tasks with a bright display at night on melatonin, core temperature, heart rate, and sleepiness. J Appl Physiol. 2003;94(5):1773-6.