Identifying the presence of gastric cancer risk factors in Campbelltown residents aged 50 to 80 years old, and determining the potential for risk factor modification following education

Mohammad I. Aljumah, Daniel Coric, David Sun, Ridha Akhtar, Lavanya Arasaratnam


Background: Gastric cancer remains an important cause of mortality in Australia, with modifiable risk factors playing a prominent preventable part in its development. The primary objective of this study is to identify gastric cancer risk factors in people living in Campbelltown area aged 50-80 years old, and to determine the potential for risk factor modification following education.

Methods: This is a post-test only intervention study where data was collected through face to face interviews. The survey consisted of questions gathering general information on demographics and identifying the presence of gastric cancer risk factors. An educational sheet was then provided to educate participants on the risk factors and epidemiological data for gastric cancer. Participants were then asked questions to determine their willingness to modify their risk factors, based on what they had learnt from the educational pamphlet. The data collected was analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

Results: A total of 137 participants were included in the study. The results show participants were likely or highly likely to modify 45% of their gastric cancer risk factors following education. We also found that women were more likely to reduce their intake of pickled and processed food, and that participants in the younger age group were more likely to reduce salted food intake.

Conclusions: Our study indicates that education may influence and may have a varying impact on the willingness of participants to modify gastric cancer risk factors. Furthermore, variables such as age and gender have impact on the willingness to modify certain risk factors.


Gastric cancer, Risk factors, Education, Behavioural modification

Full Text:



Stomach cancer statistics. World Cancer Research Fund International., 2016. Available at: Accessed on 1st March 2016.

Stomach cancer statistics. Cancer Australia. 2016. Available at: Accessed 1 March 2016.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2007. Older Australia at a glance: 4th edition. Cat. no. AGE 52. Canberra: AIHW.

Oh D, Choi K, Shin H, Bang Y. Public Awareness of Gastric Cancer Risk Factors and Disease Screening in a High Risk Region: A Population-Based Study. Cancer Res Treat. 2009;41(2):59.

2011 Census QuickStats: Greater Sydney. 2016. Available at: Accessed on 1st March 2016.

2011 Census QuickStats: Campbelltown (C). 2016. Available at: Accessed on 25 March 2016.

Campbelltown Local Government Area Health Profile. 2016. Available at: Accessed on 28 March 2016.

Jeanne AM, Alexandra RG, Piet AV. Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998;52:166–71.

Fujino Y. Prospective Study of Educational Background and Stomach Cancer in Japan. Preventive Medicine. 2002;35(2):121-7.

Campbelltown (C): Region Data Summary. 2016. Available at: Accessed on 28 March 2016.

Nemcová J, Hlinková E. The efficacy of diabetic foot care education. J Clin Nurs. 2013;23(5-6):877-82.

Dash D, Sebastian T, Aggarwal M, Tripathi M. Impact of health education on drug adherence and self-care in people with epilepsy with low education. Epilepsy & Behavior. 2015;44:213-17.

Melamed RJ, Tillmann A, Kufleitner HE, Thurmer U, Dursch M. Evaluating the efficacy of an education and treatment program for patients with coronary heart disease. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2014;111(47):802-8.

Boyde M, Song S, Peters R, Turner C, Thompson D, Stewart S. Pilot testing of a self-care education intervention for patients with heart failure. European J Cardiovascular Nursing. 2012.

Socio-economic disadvantage and health (AIHW). 2016. Available at: Accessed on 29 March 2016.

Roder D. The epidemiology of gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer. 2002;5(S1):5-11.

Sykes AO. An Introduction to Regression Analysis. Paper presented at: University of Chicago, Law School; 1992; Chicago, United States of America.

Sjödahl K, Lu Y, Nilsen T, Ye W, Hveem K, Vatten L et al. Smoking and alcohol drinking in relation to risk of gastric cancer: A population-based, prospective cohort study. International J Cancer. 2006;120(1):128-32.

Gastric Cancer Screening and Prevention. Texas Oncology. 2016. Available at: Accessed on 18 March 2016.

South Western Sydney Local Health District. Campbelltown Local Government Area Health Profile 2016. 2016. Available at: https://www. Accessed on 20 March 2016.

Age Pension - Australian Government Department of Human Services. 2016. Available at: customer/services/centrelink/age-pension. Accessed on 24 March 2016.

Scollo, MM and Winstanley, MH. Tobacco in Australia: Facts and issues. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria; 2015. Available at: Accessed on 26 March 2016.

Alcohol - Alcohol. 2016. Available at: Accessed on 24 April 2016.

McKay M, Sumnall H, McBride N, Harvey S. The differential impact of a classroom-based, alcohol harm reduction intervention, on adolescents with different alcohol use experiences: A multi-level growth modelling analysis. J Adolescence. 2014;37(7):1057-67.

Pateman K, Ford P, Fitzgerald L, Mutch A, Yuke K, Bonevski B et al. Stuck in the catch 22: attitudes towards smoking cessation among populations vulnerable to social disadvantage. Addiction. 2015.

Bittoun R, Barone M, Mendelsohn C, Elcombe E, Glozier N. Promoting positive attitudes of tobacco-dependent mental health patients towards NRT-supported harm reduction and smoking cessation. Australian New Zealand J Psychiatry. 2014;48(10):954-6.

Leifheit-Limson E, D’Onofrio G, Daneshvar M, Geda M, Bueno H, Spertus J et al. Sex Differences in Cardiac Risk Factors, Perceived Risk, and Health Care Provider Discussion of Risk and Risk Modification Among Young Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66(18):1949-57.

Kageyama M, Odagiri K, Suzuki N, Honda K, Onoue K, Yamamoto M, et al. Educational effectiveness of a group health education program in the workplace and an examination of educational methods to promote behaviour modification. Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2014;56(5):141-51.

Ashton Q, Acton P. Gastric Cancer. Scholarly Editions; 2012.

Cancer Research, 2013. Available at: Accessed on 01 April 2016.

Saris WE, Gallhofer IN. Design, Evaluation, and Analysis of Questionnaires for Survey Research. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 22. 2007:9780470165195.