Reasons for default and death among tuberculosis cases treated under revised national tuberculosis control program in selected tuberculosis units of Bangalore urban district of Karnataka state

Srinath M. P.


Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of great antiquity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a formidable pathogen. Tuberculosis still remains a worldwide problem, despite the facts that proper medications are available to treat the condition. Defaulting from the treatment is a serious issue in the treatment failure. The current study was undertaken to understand the default rate, death and its reasons among the TB patients who underwent treatment in two selected DOTS centre at Bangalore Urban district of Karnataka state.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 default patients treated under RNTCP at two randomly selected TB centres. The interview was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Patient's relatives were interviewed in case of deaths. Appropriate statistics were used to find the significance.

Results: Among the total study subjects, the 75% of the cases were males, 71.9% were in the age group 15-44 years. More than 46% of the patients were registered in category-1. The study observed that 70% of the patients defaulted during the continuation phase and only 30% defaulting was observed in the initial phase. Migration, side effects of the drugs and alcohol addiction were the major reasons for discontinuing from therapy. Maximum death (52%) was observed among Cat-1 followed by Cat-2 and the highest death rate was observed among >45 years age group.

Conclusions: The study concludes that the default was prevalent among the study population, migration and untoward effects of the drugs were the important factors of default.


Pulmonary tuberculosis, Treatment default, Deaths, Knowledge regarding tuberculosis

Full Text:



Boire NA, Riedel VA, Parrish NM, Riedel S. Tuberculosis: from an untreatable disease in antiquity to an untreatable disease in modern times. J Anc Dis Prev Rem. 2013;1(106):2.

Falleiro SD. Economic implications of HIV/AIDS on individuals and households in Goa (Doctoral dissertation, Goa University).

Dye C. Doomsday postponed? Preventing and reversing epidemics of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2009;7(1):81.

Singla R, Sarin R, Khalid UK, Mathuria K, Singla N, Jaiswal A, et al. Seven-year DOTS-Plus pilot experience in India: results, constraints and issues. Int J Tuberculosis Lung Dis. 2009;13(8):976-81.

Agarwal SP, Chauhan LS. Tuberculosis control in India. Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi. 2005.

Chatterjee S, Kolappan C, Subramani R, Gopi PG, Chandrasekaran V, Fay MP, et al. Incidence of active pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with coincident filarial and/or intestinal helminth infections followed longitudinally in South India. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e94603.

Vijay S, Balasangameswara VH, Jagannatha PS, Saroja VN, Kumar P. Defaults among tuberculosis patients treated under DOTS in Bangalore city: a search for solution. Indian J Tuberculosis. 2003;50(4):185-95.

Vidhani M, Vadgama P. Awareness regarding pulmonary tuberculosis-a study among patient taking treatment of tuberculosis in rural Surat, Gujarat. Natl J Med Res. 2012;2(4):452-5.

Khan R, Rafiq M, Ahanger B, Majid A, Jan Y. Treatment compliance of patients on dots under RNTCP in district Pulwama (Kashmir), with special refrence to defaulters. J Evol Med Dental Sci. 2015;4(78):13565-70.

Chatterjee P, Buu€jee B, Dutta D, Pati RR, Mullick AK. A comparative evaluation of factors and reasons for defaulting in tuberculosis treatment in the states of West Bengal, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh. Indian J Tuberc. 2003;50:17-22.

Chandiasekaran V, Gopi PG, Subramani R, Jagarjamma K, Nardyanan PR. Default during the intensive phase of treatment under DOTS Program. Indian J Tuberc. 2005;52:197-202.

Gopi PG, Chandrasekaran V, Subramani R, Narayanar PR. Failure to initiate treatment for tuberculosis patients diagnosed in a community survey and at health facilities under DOTS prograrnme in a District of South lndia. Indian J Tuberc. 2005;52:153-6.

Vasantha M, Gopi PG, Submmani R. Survival of tuberculosis patients treated under DOTS in a rural Tuberculosis unit (TU), South India. Indian J Tuberc. 2008;55:64-9.

Shartha T, Garg R, Frieden TR, Chandrasekaran V, Subramani R, Gopi PG, et al. Risk factors associated with default, failure and death among tuberculosis patients treated in a DOTS programme in Tiruvallur District, South India. INT J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2002;6(9):780-8.

Kartaloglu Z, Iiva A, Kilic E, Okutan O, Cenahoglu K, Ciftci F. Deaths in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: An analysis of a chest diseases hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. Med Princ Pract. 2003;12:30-3.