Study of biofilm production and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of uropathogens in a tertiary care hospital in North India

Pragyan Swagatika Panda, Uma Chaudhary, Surya K. Dube


Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Emerging resistance of the uropathogens to the antimicrobial agents due to biofilm formation is a matter of concern while treating symptomatic UTI. But studies addressing the issue of biofilm production by uropathogens in Indian scenario are scarce. Aim of the study was to study biofilm formation and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of uropathogens. 

Methods: Prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Total 300 isolates from urinary samples were analysed for biofilm formation by tissue culture plate method. We compared the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of the biofilm producing and non-producing uropathogens. For statistical analysis Chi-square test was applied when two or more set of variables were compared. A ‘p’ value of <0.05 as considered to be statistically significant.

Results: Biofilm formation was detected in 137 (45.6%) isolates. All the biofilm producing organisms were found to be multi drug resistant (MDR). Biofilm producing gram negative organisms were sensitive to imipenem, piperacillin- tazobactam and netilimicin. While, vancomycin, linezolide, rifampicin and nitrofurantoin are agents effective against biofilm producing gram positive organisms.

Conclusions: Biofilm production by uropathogens is a common phenomenon now a days and it is one of the important mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance among the uropathogens.


Biofilm, Uropathogen, Antimicrobial sensitivity, North India

Full Text:



Abdallah NMA, Elsayed SB, Mostafa MMY, El-gohary GM. Biofilm forming bacteria isolated from urinary tract infection, relation to catheterization and susceptibility to antibiotics. Int. J for Biotech Mol Biol Res. 2011;2(10):172-8.

Costerton JW, Stewart PS, Greenberg EP. Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science. 1999;284(5418):1318-22.

Stewart PS, Costerton JW. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in biofilms. Lancet. 2001;358(9276):135-8.

Christensen GD, Simpson WA, Younger JA. Adherence ofcoagulase negative Staphylococci to plastic tissue cultures:a quantitative model for the adherence of Staphylococci to medical devices. J ClinMicrobiol. 1995;22:996-1006.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, 19th informational supplement, M100-S19. Wayne: CLSI. 2009;29:44-7.

Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Sherris JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am J ClinPathol. 1966;45:493- 6.

Sharma M, Aparna, Yadav S, Choudhary U. Biofilm production in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2009;52(2):294.

Hassan A, Usman J, Kaleem F, Omair M, Khalid A, Iqbal M. Evaluation of different detection methods of biofilm formation in the clinical isolates. Braz J Infect Dis. 2011;15(4):305-11.

Nagaveni S, Rajeshwari H, Oli AK, Patil SA, Chandrakanth RK. Evaluation of biofilm forming ability of the multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The Bioscan. 2010;5(4):563-6.

Gurung J, Khyriem AB, Banik A, Lyngdoh WV, Choudhury B, Bhattacharya P. Association of biofilm production with multidrug resistance among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from intensive care unit. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2013;17(4):214-8.

Rao RS, Karthika RU, Singh SP, Shashikala P, Kanungo R, Jayachandran S, et al. Correlation between biofilm production and multiple drug resistance in imipenem resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumanii. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2008;26:333-7.

Rodriguez-Bano J, Marti S, Soto S, Fernandez-Cuenca F, Cisneros JM, Pachon J, et al. Spanish Group for the Study of Nosocomial Infections (GEIH). Biofilm formation in Acinetobacter baumannii: Associated features and clinical implications. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14:276-8.

Nwanze PI, Nwaru LM, Oranusi S, Dimkpa U, Okwu MU, Babatunde BB, et al. Urinary tract infection in Okada village: Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Scientific Research and Essay. 2007;2(4):112-6.

Manjunath GN, Prakash R, Annam V, Shetty K. Changing trends in the spectrum of antimicrobial drug resistance pattern of uropathogens isolated from hospitals and community patients with urinary tract infections in Tumkur and Bangalore. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011;2(2):504-7.