Factors influencing health-care access of female commercial sex workers in India: an in-depth review
Keywords:Commercial sex worker, Healthcare access, Barrier, Policy
Commercial sex workers (CSW) are a vulnerable section of the society with diverse health problems. However, different surveys have consistently shown limited healthcare access by this group. There are a lot of factors, related both to the health care facility and the potential users, which influence this access. In this review, we have analysed some of the factors affecting healthcare access of female CSWs in India. The analysis has been done according to a standard conceptual framework. Certain remedial measures have also been proposed at the end.
Vandepitte J, Lyerla R, Dallabetta G, Crabbe F, Alary M, Buve A. Estimates of the number of female sex workers in different regions of the world. Sex Transm Infect. 2006;82(Suppl 3):iii18–iii25.
National AIDS Control Organisation. HIV estimates – 2003. New Delhi; 2005. Available online from http://www.nacoonline.org/facts_hivestimates.htm. Accessed 4 February 2017.
Census of India. Series 29 – Andhra Pradesh; Provisional population totals: rural-urban distribution of population. Hyderabad; 2001.
Desai VK, Kosambiya JK, Thakor HG, Umrigar DD, Khandwala BR, Bhuyan KK. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and performance of STI syndromes against aetiological diagnosis, in female sex workers of red light area in Surat, India. Sex Transm Infect. 2003;79:111-5
Pandiyan K, Chandrasekhar H, Madhusudhan S. Psychological morbidity among female commercial sex workers with alcohol and drug abuse. Indian J Psychiatry 2012;54:349-51
NACO. Targeted Interventions Under NACP III- Operationalguidelines. New Delhi; 2007. Available from: http://www.iapsmgc.org/userfiles/3TARGET ED_INTERVENTION_FOR_HIGH_RISK_GROUP.pdf. Accessed 4 February 2017.
Avert, 2014. HIV & AIDS in India. Available from: http://www.avert.org/hiv-aids-india.htm. Accessed 4 February 2017.
Khan AA, Bhardwaj SM. Access to health care. A conceptual framework and its relevance to health care planning. Eval Health Prof. 1994;17:60-76.
Das M, Nanda P, Sarin E, Narang A. Universal Access for Women and Girls: Accelerating Access to HIV Prevention, Treatment, Care and Support for Female Sex Workers and Wives of Migrant Men. New Delhi: ICRW and UNDP; 2012. Available from: http://strive.lshtm.ac.uk/system/files/attach ments/UAN%20Report%20low%20res_25-04-12-1.pdf. Accessed 15 February 2017.
Deb S. Experience of CSWs with HIV/AIDS: An exploratory study in Kolkata, India. Presented at the XVI International AIDS Conference, Toronto, Canada; 2006. [Abstract no. CDD1300].
King EJ, Maman S, Bowling JM, Moracco KE, Dudina V. The Influence of Stigma and Discrimination on Female Sex Workers’ Access to HIV Services in St. Petersburg, Russia. AIDS Behav. 2013;17:2597-603.
Ghimire L, Teijlingen Ev. Barriers to Utilisation of Sexual Health Services by Female Sex Workers in Nepal. Global Journal of Health Sciences. 2009;1:12-22.
Gadekar U. Socio-Economic Status and Health Challenges of Female sex Workers of Miraj Town, India. Int Res J Social Sci. 2015;4:68-71.
Levy H, Janke A. Health Literacy and Access to Care. J Health Communication. 2016;21:43-50.
Dandona R, Dandona L, Kumar GA, Gutierrez JP, McPherson S, Samuels F, et al. Demography and sex work characteristics of female sex workers in India. BMC Int Health and Human Rights. 2006;6:5.
ILO Recommendation concerning HIV and AIDS and the World of Work, Geneva; 2010.
CREA, 2012. UPR Submission on harmful effects of criminalisation of sex work on sex workers’ human rights in India. Available from: http:// sexualrightsinitiative.com/wp-content/uploads/India -UPR-13-CREA.pdf. Accessed 10 February 2017.
Pai A, Seshu M, Gupte M, VAMP. Status of sex workers in India. 2014. Available from: http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CEDAW/Shared%20Documents/Ind/INT_CEDAW_NGO_Ind_17395_E.pdf. Accessed 12 February 2017.
Jha D, Sharma T. Caste and Prostitution in India: Politics of Shame and of Exclusion. Anthropol. 2016;4:160.
Sangram. No date. Rights and Issues of People involved in Prostitution and Sex Work in India. Available from: http://sexualrightsinitiative.com/ wp-content/uploads/India-UPR-1.pdf. Accessed 3 February 2017.
Barnett BA. Sex trafficking in mass media: gender, power and personal economies. UNESCO. Available online from http://www.unesco.org/ new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/publications/gamag_research_agenda_annbarnet.pdf. Accessed 4 February 2017.
Richter M. Characteristics, sexual behaviour and access to health care services for sex workers in South Africa. Afrika Focus. 2013;26:165-76.
Moore L, Chersich MF, Steen R, Reza-Paul S, Dhana A, Vuylsteke B, et al. Community empowerment and involvement of female sex workers in targeted sexual and reproductive health interventions in Africa: a systematic review. Global Health. 2014;10:47.