Coronary Heart Disease risk profile among women attending Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern Karnataka, India
Keywords:Women, Coronary artery disease, Angiography
Background: Present study was conducted to assess the risk factors of CHD in women who had undergone Coronary Angiography for CHD evaluation. Objectives of the study were to assess the CHD Risk profile among women attending Tertiary Care Hospital at Mysore city and to enlist the clinical presentation of women admitted to tertiary care Hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital based cross sectional study.
Methods: All the women who were admitted to the Department of Cardiology from April 2015 to January 2016 were interviewed using pre structured proforma. Details of the female patients who had undergone Angiography from September 2013 to March 2015 were also collected from Medical Record Section of the Hospital. Statistical Analysis: Proportion and mean were used for relevant univariate analysis and significance of association was tested using appropriate tests of significance.
Results: 17% of women were known cases of CHD. 87.4% of women were admitted with the symptom of chest pain. 44% of women who presented with IHD belonged to normal and underweight BMI category. Among the clinically suspected or diagnosed to be cases of CHD, 75% had blocks in their coronaries. Single artery block (29.7%) and triple artery block (22.5%) were predominant. Left anterior descending artery had significant block (>70%) in 36% of women. Left circumflex artery and right coronary arteries showed significant blocks in 26% and 22.5% participants.
Conclusions: Earlier age of presentation, higher proportion of coronary blocks in majority of study women belonging to normal or underweight BMI category are alarms of changing pattern of CHD in Indian women.
Centre or disease control and prevention. Fact sheet: Women and heart disease fact sheet. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fs_women_heart.htm. Accessed on 10 September 2016.
Park K. Epidemiology of Chronic Non Communicable diseases and conditions. In: Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 23rd edition. Jabalpur, India: Banarsidas Bhanot; 2015: 366-367.
Singh RK Women and Cardiovascular Diseases. Homeopathic J. 2009;2(4).
Weaver WD, Eisenberg MS, Martin JS, RN, Litwin PE, Shaeffer SM, et al. Myocardial infarction triage and intervention project- Phase I: Patient characteristics and feasibility of pre hospital initiation. J Am Coll Cardiol.1990;15(5):925-31 .
Bajaj S, Mahajan V, Grover S, Mahajan A, Mahajan N. Gender Based Differences in Risk Factor Profile and Coronary Angiography of Patients Presenting with Acute Myocardial Infarction in North Indian Population. J ClinDiagn Res. 2016;10(5):5-7.
Gupta R, Gupta KD. Coronary Heart Disease in Low Socioeconomic Status Subjects in India: An Evolving Epidemic. Indian Heart J. 2009;61:358-67.
Gaziano TA, Bitton A, Anand S, Abrahams-Gessel S, Murphy A. Growing epidemic of coronary heart disease in low- and middle-income countries. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2010;35(2):72–115.
Gupta R, Gupta VP, Ahluwalia NS. Educational status, coronary heart disease, and coronary risk factor prevalence in a rural population of India. BMJ. 1994;19:309.
Kaplan GA, Keil JE. Socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular disease: a review of the literature. Circulation. 1993;88(4):1973-98.
Hu G, Jousilahti P, Borodulin K, Barengo NC, Lakka TA, Nissinen A, et al. Occupational, commuting and leisure-time physical activity in relation to coronary heart disease among middle-aged Finnish men and women. Atherosclerosis. 2007;194(2):490–7.
Mozumdar A, Liguori G, Du Bose K. Occupational physical activity and risk of coronary heart disease among active and non-active working-women of North Dakota: a Go Red North Dakota Study. Anthropol Anz. 2012;69(2):201–19.
Ghaffar A, Srinath Reddy K, Singhi M. Burden of non-communicable diseases in South Asia. BMJ. 2004;328(7443):807–10.
Peters SAE, Huxley RR, Woodward M. Diabetes as risk factor for incident coronary heart disease in women compared with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 64 cohorts including 858,507 individuals and 28,203 coronary events. Diabetologia. 2014;57(8):1542–51.
Sullivan AK, Holdright DR, Wright CA, Sparrow JL, Cunningham D, Fox KM. Chest pain in women: clinical, investigative, and prognostic features. BMJ. 1994;308(6933):883–6.
Canto JG, Rogers WJ, Goldberg RJ. Association of Age and Sex With Myocardial Infarction Symptom Presentation and In-Hospital Mortality. JAMA. 2012;307(8):813-22.
Canoy D, Boekholdt SM, Wareham N, Luben R, Welch A, Bingham S, et al. Body Fat Distribution and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Men and Women in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition in Norfolk Cohort. Circulation. 2007;116(25):2933-43.
Aswathappa J, Garg S, Kutty K, Shankar V. Neck circumference as an anthropometric measure of obesity in diabetics. N Am J Med Sci. 2013;5(1):28–31.
Wilson PW, D'Agostino RB, Levy D, Belanger AM, Silbershatz H, Kannel WB. Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation. 1998;97(18):1837-47.
Lee IM, Rexrode KM, Cook NR, Manson JE, Buring JE. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in women: is “no pain, no gain” passé? JAMA. 2001;285(11):1447–54.
Y›ld›r›m N, Arat N, Do¤an MS, Sökmen Y, Özcan F. Comparison of traditional risk factors, natural history and angiographic findings between coronary heart disease patients with age <40 and ≥40 years. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2007;7:124-7.