DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20223009
Published: 2022-11-28

Gender bias experiences among rural adolescent girls

Anju Damu Ade, G. Visweswara Rao, M. Sunitha Manyam

Abstract


Background: Girls in India are disadvantaged even before their birth. For a girl child, life is a constant fight for survival, growth and development from the time she is conceived till she attains 18 years. Objectives were to study the socio-demographic profile of the rural adolescent girls to study gender bias experiences among rural adolescent girls and to assess association between sociodemographic characteristics and gender bias.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in three secondary rural government schools among rural adolescent girls in the age group of 12 to 16 years. Study participants were interviewed.

Results: Total respondents were 157.29 (18.5%) said they don’t get immediate treatment for their health issues. The 153 (97.5%) respondents said their parents support them for their education. The 12 (7.6%) girls said their parents ask them to eat food after males in their families.145(92.45%) didn’t find any discrimination regarding food with them. The 92 (58.6%) said parents force them to do domestic work. The 87 (55.4%) of the respondents said relatives ask them to sit properly and not according to their comfort. Only 19 (12.1%) said parents tell them to do puja regularly and keep fasting for religious reasons. The 88 (56.1%) respondents said that they have restrictions in going out. The 51 (32.5%) respondents said they have been verbally abused or beaten.

Conclusions: Gender bias still exists among rural community. It is critical to intervene during early adolescence if gender equity is to be established. Promoting gender equality and empowerment of girls will help to diminish gender inequity in the long-term.


Keywords


Gender bias, Rural, Adolescent girls, Schools

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adolescence an age oppurtunity. The state of world’s children 2011. Available at https://data.unicef.org/ resources/the-state-of-the-worlds-children-2011-adolescents-an-age-of-opportunity/. Accessed on Accessed on 8 Jan, 2022.

Ghosh S. Integrated health of the girl child. Soc Change. 1995;25(2-3):44-54.

Govt. of India.Working group on Development of Children for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012). A Report, Ministry of Women and Child Development. New Delhi. 2012.

Gender-discrimination-in-india-kills-extra-2-4-million-girls-in-a-decade. Available at www.atimes. com/article/gender-discrimination-in-india-kills-extra-2-4-million-girls-in-a-decade/. Accessed on 8 Jan, 2022.

Devendra K. Girl child in rural India. Soc Change. 1995;25(2-3):189-96.

Kumari R. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario. Social change. 1995;25(2-3):177-88.

Gender equality. Available at: https://www.unicef. org/gender-equality. Accessed on 17, May 2022.

Govindasamy P, Ramesh BM. Maternal education and gender bias in child care practice in India. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the population association of America, New Orleans. 1996.

Singh A. Gender based within-household inequality in childhood immunization in India: changes over time and across regions. PloS one. 2012;7(4).

Saikia N, Moradhvaj, Bora JK. Gender Difference in Health-Care Expenditure: Evidence from India Human Development Survey. PLoS One. 2016;11(7):e0158332.

WHO health topics on gender and health. Available at: https://www.who.int/health-topics/gender#tab =tab_1. Accessed on 30 May, 2022.

Chandani P, Kakkar G, Rural Girl Child Education: Need of the Hour. Nat J Res Innovative Pract (NJRIP). 2020;5(7):2456-55.

Deepika SK, Reddy GR, Kameswari SL, Sreedevi P. A study on effect of child discrimination on the education of the girl child in the selected rural and tribal areas of telangana state. Int J Curr Res. 2019;11(08):6311-13.

Choudhary HR. Girl Child Education in Rural Rajasthan. Int J Social Sci. 2019;5(2):893-907.

Sivakumar I, Usha VT. Gender discrimination among the girl children in Puducherry: a marine fishing community study. Int J Multidisciplinary Res. 2012;2(11):93-101.

Kshatriya GK, Acharya SK. Gender Disparities in the Prevalence of Undernutrition and the Higher Risk among the Young Women of Indian Tribes. PLoS One. 2016;11(7):e0158308.

Gupta A, Parashar A, Thakur A, Sharma D. Anemia among adolescent girls in Shimla Hills of north India: does BMI and onset of menarche have a role? Indian J Med Sci. 2012;66:126-30.

WHO fact sheets on Adolescent and young adult health. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/adolescents-health-risks-and-solutions. Accessed on 17 May, 2022.

Verma BL, Kumar A, Srivastava RN. Nutritional profile of children in rural community; Findings of two surveys. Ind J Publ Heal. 1981;24(3):140-9.

Hathi P, Coffey D, Thorat A, Khalid N. When women eat last: Discrimination at home and women's mental health. PLoS One. 2021;16(3):e0247065.

Adolescent development and participation (UNICEF). Available at: https://www.unicef.org/ adolescence. Accessed on 18, June 2022.

Gold-Watts A, Hovdenak M, Daniel M, Gandhimathi S, Sudha R, Bastien S. A qualitative study of adolescent girls' experiences of menarche and menstruation in rural Tamil Nadu, India. Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being. 2020;15(1):1845924.

National family health survey facts sheets. Available at: http://rchiips.org/nfhs/factsheet_nfhs-4.shtml. Accessed on 22 May, 2022.

Raj A, Saggurti N, Balaiah D, Silverman JG. Prevalence of child marriage and its effect on fertility and fertility-control outcomes of young women in India: a cross-sectional, observational study. Lancet. 2009;373(9678):1883-9.

Brahmapurkar KP. Gender equality in India hit by illiteracy, child marriages and violence: a hurdle for sustainable development. Pan Afr Med J. 2017;28:178.

UNICEF for every child. Available at: https://www.unicef.org/reports/convention-rights-child-crossroads-2019. Accessed on 22 May, 2022.

Naved RT, Chowdhury S, Arman S, Sethuraman K. Mobility of Unmarried Adolescent Girls in Rural Bangladesh. Economic and Political Weekly. 2007;42(44):63-70.

Sarkar M. A study on domestic violence against adult and adolescent females in a rural area of West Bengal. Indian J Community Med. 2010;35:311-5.

Patel V, Andrew G. Gender, sexual abuse and risk behaviours in adolescents: A cross-sectional survey in schools in Goa. Nat Med J India. 2001;14(5):263-7.