DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222348
Published: 2022-09-22

Nexus of urinary tract infection prevalence of the causal organism and predisposing factors in Kanyakine Hospital, Meru, Kenya

Irene Muthee, Eliphas Gitonga, Joseph Musau

Abstract


Background: Globally, urinary tract infection (UTI) is most common during pregnancy, prevalence and incidences being higher than in non-pregnant and elderly women. Inadequate data and information deter UTI prevention and management.

Methods: The study targeted UTI positive gravid women seeking antenatal services at Kanyakine hospital. The study assessed history of UTI, lifestyle and hygiene factors. Laboratory test and analysis were conducted on urine specimen collected from 135 randomly sampled study subjects. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the sampled subjects and their urine tested to detect presence of microorganisms. The results were analysed using established quantitative methods.

Results: Most (47%) of the respondents were Escherichia coli infected while Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 20%. of respondents. Increased rate of sexual intercourse was linked to detection of Escherichia coli in 47.6%, Klebsiella pneumoniae in 40% and yeast (Candida) in 47.4%. Wearing non-cotton undergarment was attributed to detection of E. coli in 68.3%, yeast (63.2%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (60%) of the respondents. Reduced frequency of changing undergarment led to detection of high pathogen levels. The mode of wiping and type of toilet significantly influenced infection (p˂0.05).

Conclusions: Hygiene factors that increases chances of E. coli infection remains among the most significant cause of UTI in gravid mothers. This study recommends integration of an elaborate awareness creation on UTI prevention measures at the early stages of pregnancy and further studies to determine the national UTI burden to device mitigation strategies.


Keywords


Predisposing factors, Prevalence, Causal organism

Full Text:

PDF

References


Habak PJ, Griggs RP. Urinary Tract Infection In Pregnancy. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. 2022.

Younis M, Ajroud S, Elgade LH, Uahua AS, Elzahaf R. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection among Pregnant Women and Its Risk Factor in Derna City. 2019. United Arab Emirates J. 2022.

Al-Gasha’a FAS, Al-Baker SM, Obiada JM, Alrobiai FA. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections and Associated Risk Factors Among Patients Attending Medical City Hospital in Baghdad City, Iraq. Am J Infect Dis. 2020;16(2):77-84.

Đorđević Z, Folić M, Janković S. Community-acquired urinary tract infections: Causative agents and their resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2016;73(12):1109-15.

Belete MA. Bacterial Profile and ESBL Screening of Urinary Tract Infection Among Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care of Northeastern Ethiopia Region. Infect Drug Resist. 2020;13:2579-92.

Yeva R. Comparison of microbial pattern causing urinary tract infection in female out and hospitalized patients in Jakarta. Microbiol Indones. 2016;10(1):30-7.

El Kashif MML. Urinary Tract Infection among Pregnant Women and its Associated Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study. Biomed Pharmacol J. 2019;12(4).

Onyango HA, Ngugi C, Maina J, Kiiru J. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Pumwani maternity hospital Nairobi, Kenya; bacterial etiology agents, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and associated risk factors. Adv Microbiol. 2018;8(3).

Lee AC, Mullany LC, Koffi AK, Rafiqullah I, Khanam R, Folger LV, et al. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy in a rural population of Bangladesh: population-based prevalence, risk factors, etiology, and antibiotic resistance. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019;20(1):1.

Gilbert NM, O'Brien VP, Hultgren S, Macones G, Lewis WG, Lewis AL. Urinary tract infection as a preventable cause of pregnancy complications: opportunities, challenges, and a global call to action. Glob Adv Health Med. 2013;2(5):59-69.

Drew R, Cooley S. Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy, Institute of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Royal College of Physicians of Ireland and the Clinical Strategy and Programmes Division, Health Service Executive Version: Guideline No: 11 Revised version. 2018.

Sekharan CB, Kumar DD, Kumari KR, Joachim CA. Determination of Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection Among the Pregnant Women with Lower Abdominal Pain. Pharm Biosci J. 2017;5(2):50-5.

Rahiman F, Balasubramaman T, Musambili M. A review on urinary tract infection in pregnancy. Int J Pharm Res Rev. 2015;4(2).

Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska J, Małyszko J, Wieliczko M. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: old and new unresolved diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Arch Med Sci. 2015;11(1):67-77.

Imam TH. Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections. MSD Manual professional version. 2020. Available at: https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-in/professional/ genitourinary-disorders/urinary-tract-infections-utis/bacterial-urinary-tract-infections. Accessed on 12 March 2022.

Platte RO, Reynolds K. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy. Available at: http://emedicinemedscape. com.accessed 30-6-2015. Accessed on 12 March 2022.

Amiri M, Lavasani Z, Norouzirad R, Najibpour R, Mohamadpour M, Nikpoor AR, Raeisi M, Zare Marzouni H. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection Among Pregnant Women and its Complications in Their Newborns During the Birth in the Hospitals of Dezful City, Iran, 2012 - 2013. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015;17(8):e26946.

Belete MA, Saravanan M. A Systematic Review on Drug Resistant Urinary Tract Infection Among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries in Africa and Asia; 2005-2016. Infect Drug Resistance. 2020;13:1465-77.

Shiralizadeh S, Taghizadeh S, Asgharzadeh M, Shokouhi B, Gholizadeh P, Rahbar M, Kafil H. Urinary tract infections: Raising problem in developing countries. Rev Med Microbiol. 2018;29(4):159-5.

Nteziyaremye J, Iramiot SJ, Nekaka R, Musaba MW, Wandabwa J, Kisegerwa E, Kiondo P. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Mbale Hospital, Eastern Uganda. PLoS One. 2020;15(3):e0230523.

Sedgwick P. Cross sectional studies: advantages and disadvantages. BMJ. 2014;348:2276.

Storme O, Tirán Saucedo J, Garcia-Mora A, Dehesa-Dávila M, Naber KG. Risk factors and predisposing conditions for urinary tract infection. Ther Adv Urol. 2019;11:1756287218814382.

Ayoyi AO, Kikuvi G, Bii C, Kariuki S. Prevalence, aetiology and antibiotic sensitivity profile of asymptomatic bacteriuria isolates from pregnant women in selected antenatal clinic from Nairobi, Kenya. Pan Afr Med J. 2017;26:41.

Mamhoud MAD, Kamel AD, Ahmed SI, El-Hamed AAA. Prevalence of urinary tract infections among pregnant women at Sohag University Hospital. 2019;1(3):162-74.

Haghdoost S, Pazandeh F, Khabazkhoob M, Lak TB. Association Between Sexual and Genital Hygiene Habits With the Urinary Tract Infection During Pregnancy: A Case-Control Study. Int J Women’s Health Reprod Sci. 2020;8(2):158-4.

Abdel-Aziz Elzayat M, Barnett-Vanes A, Dabour MF, Cheng F. Prevalence of undiagnosed asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated risk factors during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study at two tertiary centres in Cairo, Egypt. BMJ Open. 2017(3):e013198.

Badran YA, El-Kashef TA, Abdelaziz AS, Ali MM. Impact of genital hygiene and sexual activity on urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Urol Ann. 2015;7:478-81.

Ahmed AF, Solyman AA, Kamal SM. Potential host-related risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection in Saudi women of childbearing age. Int Urogynecol J. 2016;27(8):1245-53.

Nikoloska, Gjoreska, Kaev,Petlickovski Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnant Women in Second Trimester and the Risk of Preterm Birth BANTAO Journal 2020; 18(1):1-5

Sahu R, Sahoo RK, Prusty SK, Sahu PK. Urinary Tract Infection and its Management. System Rev Pharm. 2019;10(1):42-8.

Mwirigi SN, Muteti P, Muchiri E, Ruto J. Effect of Knowledge and Culture on Utilization of Pit Latrines in Tigania East, Meru County, Kenya. Int J Sci Res. 2020;9:597-602.