Published: 2022-08-26

An observational study to determine prevalence of vitamin D3 deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant mothers of rural and urban health centres in Panvel block of Maharashtra

Sonal Raut, Rishikesh Wadke, C. S. Srinivas


Background: Severe deficiency of vitamin D3 leads to increased risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm labour, and reduced bone mineral density in mother as well as child. Objectives were to know prevalence of vitamin D3 deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant mothers and to understand rural urban difference in vitamin D3 levels.

Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was done on data of 1100 pregnant mothers coming to ANC clinics at Rural and urban health centres, of Panvel block, Maharashtra, for Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D using venous blood samples. The duration of study was from June 2019 to December 2021.Two study groups were made rural and urban. Statistical software’s like Excel, SPSS were used.

Results: Fifty five per cent pregnant mothers were from rural and 45% from urban settings. Study revealed that in rural study group 16% were grossly deficient, and 69% had insufficient levels. In urban group15% had deficient and 70% had insufficient levels of Vitamin D3. An overall inadequacy of 85% was found at the end of study. Out of the total study population 26% of pregnant mothers were in first and third trimester and 48%in second trimester. No relationship was established in vitamin D3 levels and demographic settings or gestational age.

Conclusions: In India vitamin D3 supplementation is not part of antenatal care, but seeing the high prevalence of deficiency and insufficiency, which indicate an on-going hidden epidemic, prophylactic vitamin D3 supplementation can be thought of in national health programs like RMNCH+A.


Vitamin D3, Deficiency, Insufficiency, Panvel block, Pregnant mothers, Prevalence, Primary health centres, Urban health centres

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