DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20184605

Breast cancer screening and diagnosis: a glance back and a look forward

Arslaan Javaeed

Abstract


The breast cancer has emerged as the commonest malignancy among women and the second most common cancer worldwide after lung cancer. But luckily, the survival rate has also increased significantly to about 98% in patients with early stage of the disease. It shows that an early and accurate diagnosis will considerably reduce the morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. Therefore, the selection of proper diagnostic technique is of immense importance. Various techniques for screening and diagnosis of breast cancer include conventional methods like self and clinical breast examination, mammography and ultrasound. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging are useful for advanced stages of the disease. Biopsy is the gold standard test for the diagnosis. Present article is an effort review different techniques available for the screening and diagnosis of breast cancer. 


Keywords


Breast, Cancer, Screening, Diagnosis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Chlebowski R. Nutrition and physical activity influence on breast cancer incidence and outcome. The Breast. 2013;22:S30-7.

Torre L, Bray F, Siegel R, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA: A Cancer J Clinicians. 2015;65(2):87-108.

Nover A, Jagtap S, Anjum W, Yegingil H, Shih W, Shih W et al. Modern Breast Cancer Detection: A Technological Review. Int J Biomed Imaging. 2009;2009:1-14.

Science Daily. Major differences between male and female breast cancers uncovered, but male patients still disadvantaged by lack of research. Science Daily. 2016. Available at: https://www.sciencedaily. com/releases/2016/03/160310080508.htm. Accessed on 11 September 2018.

World Health Organization. Early detection of cancer. Who.int. 2018. Available at: http://www. who.int/cancer/detection/. Accessed on 11 September 2018.

Hong Kong Cancer Registry. Overview of Hong Kong Cancer Statistics of 2015. Www3.ha.org.hk. 2018. Available at: http://www3.ha.org.hk/ cancereg/pdf/overview/Summary%20of%20CanStat%202015.pdf. Accessed on 11 September 2018.

Mant D, Vessey M, Neil A, McPherson K, Jones L. Breast self examination and breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Br J Cancer. 1987;55(2):207-211.

U.S. Preventive Services: Task Force. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org. 2016. Available at: https://www.uspreventiveservices taskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/breast-cancer-screening1#Pod6. Accessed on 11 September 2018.

Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2011- Previous Version - SEER Cancer Statistics Review. Seer.cancer.gov. 2018. Available at: https://seer. cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/. Accessed on 11 September 2018.

Narod S, Iqbal J, Giannakeas V, Sopik V, Sun P. Breast Cancer Mortality After a Diagnosis of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ. JAMA Oncol. 2015;1(7):888.

Colditz G, Rosner B, Chen W, Holmes M, Hankinson S. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer According to Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Status. JNCI J National Cancer Institute. 2004;96(3):218-28.

Hankinson S, Eliassen A. Circulating Sex Steroids and Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal Women. Hormones and Cancer. 2010;1(1):2-10.

Hahn K. Breast self-examination: defining a cohort still in need. Breast Diseases: A Year Book Quarterly. 2010;21(2):134-5.

Tarawneh E, Al-Atiyyat N. Exploration of Barriers to Breast-Self Examination and Awareness: A Review. Middle East J Nurs. 2013;7(6):3-7.

Kösters J, Gøtzsche P. Regular self-examination or clinical examination for early detection of breast cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Rev. 2003.

Saslow D, Hannan J, Osuch J, Alciati M, Baines C, Barton M, et al. Clinical Breast Examination: Practical Recommendations for Optimizing Performance and Reporting. CA: A Cancer J Clin. 2004;54(6):327-44.

Moss S, Wale C, Smith R, Evans A, Cuckle H, Duffy S. Effect of mammographic screening from age 40 years on breast cancer mortality in the UK Age trial at 17 years' follow-up: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(9):1123-32.

Tabar L, Yen M, Vitak B, Chen H, Smith R, Duffy S. Mammography service screening and mortality in breast cancer patients: 20-year follow-up before and after introduction of screening. The Lancet. 2003;361(9367):1405-10.

Chiarelli A, Edwards S, Prummel M, Muradali D, Majpruz V, Done S, et al. Digital Compared with Screen-Film Mammography: Performance Measures in Concurrent Cohorts within an Organized Breast Screening Program. Radiology. 2013;268(3):684-93.

Miller A. The role of screening mammography in the era of modern breast cancer treatment. Climacteric. 2018;21(3):204-8.

Miller A, Wall C, Baines C, Sun P, To T, Narod S. Twenty five year follow-up for breast cancer incidence and mortality of the Canadian National Breast Screening Study: randomised screening trial. BMJ. 2014;348:g366-6.

Geisel J, Raghu M, Hooley R. The Role of Ultrasound in Breast Cancer Screening: The Case for and Against Ultrasound. Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI. 2018;39(1):25-34.

Harvey J, Bovbjerg V. Quantitative Assessment of Mammographic Breast Density: Relationship with Breast Cancer Risk. Radiology. 2004;230(1):29-41.

Madjar H. Role of Breast Ultrasound for the Detection and Differentiation of Breast Lesions. BreastCare. 2010;5:109-14.

Hlawatsch A, Teifke A, Schmidt M, Thelen M. Preoperative Assessment of Breast Cancer: Sonography Versus MR Imaging. Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179(6):1493-501.

Menezes G. Magnetic resonance imaging in breast cancer: A literature review and future perspectives. World J Clin Oncol. 2014;5(2):61.

Saslow D, Boetes C, Burke W, Harms S, Leach M, Lehman C, et al. American Cancer Society Guidelines for Breast Screening With MRI as an Adjunct to Mammography. Obstetrical Gynecological Survey. 2007;62(7):458-60.

Berg W, Gutierrez L, NessAiver M, Carter W, Bhargavan M, Lewis R, et al. Diagnostic Accuracy of Mammography, Clinical Examination, US, and MR Imaging in Preoperative Assessment of Breast Cancer. Radiology. 2004;233(3):830-49.

Hrung JM, Sonnad SS, Schwartz JS, Langlotz CP. Accuracy of MR imaging in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions: A diagnostic meta-analysis. Acad Radiol. 1999;6(7):387–37.

Morrow M. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Breast Cancer. JAMA. 2004;292(22):2779.

Chapellier C, Balu-Maestro C, Bleuse A, Ettore F, Bruneton J. Ultrasonography of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: sonographic patterns and diagnostic value. Clin Imaging. 2000;24(6):333-6.

Bernardi D, Macaskill P, Pellegrini M, Valentini M, Fantò C, Ostillio L et al. Breast cancer screening with tomosynthesis (3D mammography) with acquired or synthetic 2D mammography compared with 2D mammography alone (STORM-2): a population-based prospective study. The Lancet Oncol. 2016;17(8):1105-13.

Houssami N, Lång K, Hofvind S, Zackrisson S, Bernardi D, Hunter K et al. Effectiveness of digital breast tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) in population breast cancer screening: a protocol for a collaborative individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis. Translational Cancer Res. 2017;6(4):869-77.

Nakamura S, Kenjo H, Nishio T, Kazama T, Doi O, Suzuki K. Efficacy of 3D-MR mammography for breast conserving surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Breast Cancer. 2002;9(1):15-9.

Hruska C. Molecular Breast Imaging for Screening in Dense Breasts: State of the Art and Future Directions. Am J Roentgenol. 2017;208(2):275-83.

Lee A, Chang J, Lim W, Kim B, Lee J, Cha E, et al. Effectiveness of Breast-Specific Gamma Imaging (BSGI) for Breast Cancer in Korea: A Comparative Study. The Breast J. 2012;18(5):453-8.

Hankinson S, Eliassen A. Circulating Sex Steroids and Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal Women. Hormones and Cancer. 2010;1(1):2-10.

Hausegger K, Lind P, Reinprecht P, Igerc I, Beyer T. Advantages and limitations of FDG PET in the follow-up of breast cancer. Eur J Nuclear Med Molecular Imaging. 2004;31(0):S125-S134.

Hendrick R. Radiation Doses and Cancer Risks from Breast Imaging Studies. Radiology. 2010;257(1):246-253.

Force U. Genetic risk assessment and BRCA mutation testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility: recommendation statement. 2005. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143(5):355-61.

Moyer V. Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-Related Cancer in Women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ann Internal Med. 2014;160(4):271-81.

Euhus D. Tamoxifen and Contralateral Breast Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Carriers: An Update. Breast Diseases: A Year Book Quarterly, 2007;17(4):401-2.

Nelson R. Tamoxifen Cuts Risk for Breast Cancer in BRCA Carriers. Medscape. 2013. Available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/809174 Accessed on 11 September 2018.

Moyer V. Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-Related Cancer in Women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ann Internal Med. 2014;160(4):271-81.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Having a breast biopsy. A review of the research for women and thier families. Available at: https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/breast-biopsy-update_consumer.pdf. Accessed on 11 September 2018.

Siegel R, Miller K, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2015. CA: A Cancer J Clin. 2015;65(1):5-29.