DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20184020

Poverty and common mental disorders in India: the inseparable twins

Shyamkumar Sriram

Abstract


CMDs are a significant cause of morbidity and disability. A large proportion of the population of India lives below the poverty line. This policy report aims to contribute to India’s CMD prevention strategy by reviewing the relationship between CMDs and poverty. While more Indian studies are needed, this review identifies access barriers and social security insufficiencies and recommends measures to address them.

Keywords


Common mental disorders, Poverty, Government of India, National mental health program

Full Text:

PDF

References


Population Census 2011. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Available at: http://censusindia.gov.in/. Accessed on 17 March 2018.

Registrar General and Census Commissioner. Population Projections for India and States 2001-2026, Report of the Technical Group on Population Projections Constituted by National Population Commission 2006. Available at: https://www. educationforallinindia.com/Population_Projection_ Report_2006.pdf Accessed on 19 March 2018.

Fuel for Life. Household Energy and Health. World Health Organization. Available at: http://apps.who. int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43421/92415631 68_eng.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed on 16 March 2018.

Chen S, Ravallion M. The developing world is poorer than we thought, but no less successful in the fight against poverty. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series 4703. Washington DC: World Bank 2008. Available at: http://siteresources. worldbank.org/DEC/Resources/DevelopingworldispoorerQJE.pdf Accessed on 8 March 2018.

Bhide S, Mehta AK. Chronic Poverty in Rural India: issues and findings from panel data. Journal of Human Development. 2004;5(2):195-209.

International Institute for Population Sciences. Mumbai, India: International Institute for Population Sciences; 2007. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), 2005–06: India. Available at: https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/ frind3/frind3-vol1andvol2.pdf Accessed on 30 March 2018.

Balarajan Y, Selvaraj S, Subramanian SV. Health care and equity in India. Lancet. 2011;377(9764):505-15.

Sen G, Iyer A, George A. Structural reforms and health equity: a comparison of NSS surveys, 1986–87 and 1995–96. Econ Polit Wkly. 2002;37:1342–52.

Thadani KB. Public Private Partnership in the Health Sector: Boon or Bane. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014;157:307-16.

World Bank. Out of Pocket Health Expenditures. Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ SH.XPD.OOPC.ZS. Accessed on 21 February 2018.

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Select health parameters: a comparative analysis across the National Sample Survey Organization 42nd, 52nd, and 60th Rounds. 2007. Available at: https://ruralindiaonline.org/ resources/select-health-parameters-a-comparative-analysis-across-the-national-sample-survey-organization-nsso-42nd-52nd-and-60th-rounds/ Accessed on 11 March 2018.

Balarajan Y, Selvaraj S, Subramanian SV. Health care and equity in India. Lancet. 2011;377(9764):505-15.

Gupta I, Trivedi M. Health insurance: beyond a piecemeal approach. Econ Polit Wkly. 2006;41:2525–8.

Acharya A, Ranson K. Health care financing for the poor: community-based health insurance schemes in Gujarat. Econ Polit Wkly. 2005;40:4141–50.

Ellis RP, Alam M, Gupta I. Health insurance in India: prognosis and prospects. Econ Polit Wkly. 2000; 35: 207–17.

Ranson MK, Sinha T, Chatterjee M, Acharya A, Bhavsar A, Morris SS, et al. Making health insurance work for the poor: learning from the Self-Employed Women's Association's (SEWA) community-based health insurance scheme in India. Social Sci Med. 2006;62(3):707-20.

Srinath Reddy K, Shah B, Varghese C, Ramadoss A. Responding to the threat of chronic diseases in India. Lancet. 2005;366(9498):1744-9.

Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2095-128.

World Health Organization. Mental health and development: targeting people with mental health conditions as a vulnerable group. 2010. Available at:http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44257/9789241563949_eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. Accessed on 28 March 2018.

Vos T, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, Lozano R, Michaud C, Ezzati M, et al. Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2163-96.

Charlson FJ, Baxter AJ, Cheng HG, Shidhaye R, Whiteford HA. The burden of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders in China and India: a systematic analysis of community representative epidemiological studies. Lancet. 2016;388(10042):376-89.

The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Geneva: World Health Organziation; 1992. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/ bitstream/handle/10665/37958/9241544228_eng.pdf;jsessionid=4F8B01234DC1421D9DCE722FF22187C9?sequence=8. Accessed on 20 February 2018.

Patel V, Kirkwood BR, Pednekar S, Weiss H, Mabey D. Risk factors for common mental disorders in women: Population-based longitudinal study. Br J Psychiatr. 2018;189(6):547-55.

Patel V, Araya R, de Lima M, Ludermir A, Todd C. Women, poverty and common mental disorders in four restructuring societies. Social Sci Med. 1999;49(11):1461-71.

Pathak N, Singh RN, Singh UP. Socio-economics of women's mental health in India. Indian J Health Wellbeing. 2017;8(11):1304-8.

Patel V, Kleinman A. Poverty and common mental disorders in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2003;81(8):609-15.

Lund C, Breen A, Flisher AJ, Kakuma R, Corrigall J, Joska JA, et al. Poverty and common mental disorders in low and middle income countries: A systematic review. Social Sci Med. 2010;71(3):517-28.

Patel V, Pereira J, Coutinho L, Fernandes R, Fernandes J, Mann A. Poverty, psychological disorder and disability in primary care attenders in Goa, India. Br J Psychiatr: J Mental Sci. 1998;172:533-6.

Das J, Do QT, Friedman J, McKenzie D, Scott K. Mental health and poverty in developing countries: revisiting the relationship. Social Sci Med. 2007;65(3):467-80.

Weaver LJ, Hadley C. Moving beyond hunger and nutrition: a systematic review of the evidence linking food insecurity and mental health in developing countries. Ecol Food Nutr. 2009;48(4):263-84.

Kuruvilla A, Jacob KS. Poverty, social stress & mental health. The Indian J Med Res. 2007;126(4):273-8.

Patel V, Burns JK, Dhingra M, Tarver L, Kohrt BA, Lund C. Income inequality and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association and a scoping review of mechanisms. World psychiatry: official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA). 2018;17(1):76-89.

Brinda EM, Rajkumar AP, Attermann J, Gerdtham UG, Enemark U, Jacob KS. Health, Social, and Economic Variables Associated with Depression Among Older People in Low and Middle Income Countries: World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health. J American Assoc Geriatric Psych. 2016;24(12):1196-208.

Mohindra KS, Haddad S, Narayana D. Can microcredit help improve the health of poor women? Some findings from a cross-sectional study in Kerala, India. Int J Equity Health. 2008;7:2.

Patel V, Chisholm D, Kirkwood BR, Mabey D. Prioritizing health problems in women in developing countries: comparing the financial burden of reproductive tract infections, anaemia and depressive disorders in a community survey in India. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12(1):130-9.

Pereira B, Andrew G, Pednekar S, Pai R, Pelto P, Patel V. The explanatory models of depression in low income countries: listening to women in India. J Affective Dis. 2007;102(1-3):209-18.

Raguram R, Weiss MG, Channabasavanna SM, Devins GM. Stigma, depression, and somatization in South India. Am J Psychiatr. 1996;153(8):1043-9.

Lund C, De Silva M, Plagerson S, Cooper S, Chisholm D, Das J, et al. Poverty and mental disorders: breaking the cycle in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet. 2011;378(9801):1502-14.

Sinha SK, Kaur J. National mental health programme: Manpower development scheme of eleventh five-year plan. Indian J Psychiatry. 2011;53(3):261-5.

Chatterjee P. Economic crisis highlights mental health issues in India; 2009: 1160-1161.

Karan A, Yip W, Mahal A. Extending health insurance to the poor in India: An impact evaluation of Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana on out of pocket spending for healthcare. Social Sci Med. 2017;181:83-92.

Premchander S, Prameela V, Chidambaranathan M, Jeyaseelan L. Multiple Meanings of Money. How Women See Microfinance, Sage, New Delhi, India, 2009. Available at: https://books.google.com/ books/about/Multiple_Meanings_of_Money.html?id=89GGAwAAQBAJ. Accessed on 17 February 2018.

NABARD, Status of Micro-Finance in India-2007-2008, NABARD, Mumbai, India, 2008. Available at: https://www.nabard.org/auth/writereaddata/ ender/ 3107173636SMFI%202007-08.pdf. Accessed on 28 February 2018.

Empowering women through self-help micro-credit programmes. Bulletin on Asia-Pacific Perspectives 2002/3. Available at: http://lessons.micro financelessons.com/lesson14/resources/empowering_women_SH_progs.pdf. Accessed on 26 March 2018.

Brugha R, Zwi A. Improving the quality of private sector delivery of public health services: challenges and strategies. Health Policy Planning. 1998;13(2):107-20.

Patel V. Recognition of common mental disorders in primary care in African countries: should “mental” be dropped? Lancet. 1996;347:742-4.

Patel V, Weiss HA, Chowdhary N, Naik S, Pednekar S, Chatterjee S, et al. Effectiveness of an intervention led by lay health counsellors for depressive and anxiety disorders in primary care in Goa, India (MANAS): a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9758):2086-95.

Shinde S, Andrew G, Bangash O, Cohen A, Kirkwood B, Patel V. The impact of a lay counselor led collaborative care intervention for common mental disorders in public and private primary care: a qualitative evaluation nested in the MANAS trial in Goa, India. Social Sci Med. 2013;88:48-55.

Indian Public Health Standards for Primary Health Centers; Guidelines (March 2006); Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; Government of India. Available at: http://www.iapsmgc.org/ userfiles/4IPHS_for_PHC.pdf. Accessed on 21 March 2018.

Indian Public Health Standards for sub-centers; Guidelines (March 2006); Directorate General of Health Services; Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; Government of India. Available at: http://www.iapsmgc.org/userfiles/ 3IPHS_for_SUB-CENTRES.pdf. Accessed on 28 March 2018.

Chatterjee S, Chowdhary N, Pednekar S, Cohen A, Andrew G, Andrew G, et al. Integrating evidence-based treatments for common mental disorders in routine primary care: feasibility and acceptability of the MANAS intervention in Goa, India. WPA. 2008;7(1):39-46.

Funk M, Saraceno B, Drew N, Faydi E. Integrating mental health into primary healthcare. Mental Health Fam Med. 2008;5(1):5-8.

Davies T, Lund C. Integrating mental health care into primary care systems in low- and middle-income countries: lessons from PRIME and AFFIRM. Global Mental Health. 2017;4:e7.

World Health Organization. Integrating mental health into primary care: a global perspective. Available at: http://www.who.int/mental_health/ policy/services/integratingmhintoprimarycare/en/. Accessed on 8 March 2018.

Ravallion M. A Comparative Perspective On Poverty Reduction In Brazil, China And India: The World Bank; 2009:39.