DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20182086

Low birth weight and premature births and their associated maternal factors

Mithila Dayanithi

Abstract


Background: LBW is a significant public health problem globally. In India every 3rd newborn is a LBW contributing to about 40% of the global burden. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of LBW and premature births and their associated maternal factors.

Methods: A cross sectional study was done in antenatal women attending Rama Medical College Hospital& Research Centre, Hapur. Maternal factors and socioeconomic factors collected from 406 mothers were coded and analyzed using the SPSS 16. Chi square test was applied and p value less than 0.5 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: Prevalence of LBW was 31.8% and prematurity was 25.6% in the study. LBW and premature babies were more associated with joint families, ≤Rs. 2999/- monthly income, maternal illiteracy and house wives. LBW and Premature babies decreased with increase in income, Hb >11.1 gms and ≥ 100 IFA tablets intake. The rates of LBW were the same whether mothers had no ANC or full ANC. This raises doubts about the content of the ANC.

Conclusions: A good quality dedicated and sincere comprehensive ANC package including 4 ANCs, 100 IFA, 2TT/Booster, simple serial measurement of BP, weight, haemoglobin, fundal height and abdominal girth during each visit and screening for complications, counselling for birth and emergency preparedness, newborn care, breast feeding would help avert LBW and premature birth.

 


Keywords


Low birth weight, Premature births, Maternal and paternal factors, Quality ANC

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization. Global nutrition targets 2025: low birth weight policy brief (WHO/NMH/NHD/14.5). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014.

Kumar M, Verma R, Khanna P, Bhalla K, Kumar R, Dhaka R, et al. Prevalence and associate factors of low birth weight in North Indian babies: a rural based study. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017;4(9):3212-7.

State of India’s Newborns (2004): New Delhi/Washington DC. NNF & Save the Children/US, 2004: 43-65.

Kramer MS. Intra Uterine Growth & Gestational Duration Determinants. Paediatrics 1987;80(4):502-11.

Dutta. Low Birth Weight Baby. In: Hiralal Konar, editor, Text Book of Obstetrics, 7th Edition, Kolkata: New Central Book Agency(P) Ltd; 2011: 456-467.

Bhargava SK, Bhargava V, Kumari S, Madhavan S, Ghosh S. Birth weight, Gestational age & Maternal Factors in Low Birth Weight babies. Indian Paediatrics 1973;10(3):161-6.

Sachedev HPS. Nutrition in Children. In: Nutrition in Children: Developing country concerns. 1st Edition. New Delhi, Department of Paediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College. 1994: 1-45.

Annual Report. National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad; 1979: 60-76.

ICMR Bulletin; 1985;15(1):1-8.

Ghosh S, Beri S. Standards of Prematurity for North Indian babies. Indian J Child Health. 1962;11:210-5.

Bhargava SK, Sachdev HPS, Ramji S, Iyer PU. Low Birth Weight: aetiology and prevention in India. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1987;7:59-65.

Bhargava SK. Perspectives in Child health in India. Indian Paediatr. 1991;28:1403-10.

United Nations Children’s Fund and World Health Organization, Low Birthweight: Country, regional and global estimates. UNICEF, New York, 2004.

National Health Policy 2017, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India.

Bhargava SK, Singh KK, Saxena BN. National Collaborative Study of Identification of High Risk Families Mothers and Outcome of their off springs with particular reference to the problem of Maternal, Nutrition, Low Birth Weight, Perinatal and Infant Morbidity and Mortality in Rural and Urban Slum communities. 1990; New Delhi, Indian Council of Med Res.

Krishna U, Kambo I, Nair A, Saxena NC, Saxena BN. Collaborative study on High risk Pregnancies Maternal Mortality. New Delhi, ICMR. 1990.

Ghosh S, Hooja V, Mittal SK, Varma RK. Bio-social Determinants of Birth weight. Indian Paediatr. 1977;14(2):107-14.

National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), 2015-2016, International Institute for Population Science (IIPS) and Macro International.

India-Profile for Preterm and Low Birth Weight Prevention Care. Available at: www.EveryPreemie .org. Accessed on 12 January 2018.

World Health Organisation. Implementation of ANC guidelines and recommendations. In: WHO recommendations on Antenatal Care for a Positive Pregnancy Experience, Luxembourg: Green Ink; 2016: 105-117.

National Health Mission, Maternal Health. Available at: http://nhm.gov.in/nrhm-components/ rmnch-a/maternal-health/background.html. Accessed on 5 May 2018.

Guidelines for Antenatal Care and Skilled Attendance at Birth by ANMs/LHVs/SNs, Maternal Health Division, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India; 2010:7-38.