DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20182146

Hand washing knowledge and practices among public primary schools in the Kintampo Municipality of Ghana

Dubik S. Dajaan, Henry O. Addo, Luke Ojo, Kingsley E. Amegah, Fiagbe Loveland, Banewel D. Bechala, Begyele B. Benjamin

Abstract


Background: Hand washing is very effective in preventing communicable diseases. Hand washing is particularly important for children, as they are more vulnerable to infections gained from unwashed hands and also due to their unhealthy behaviour. The study was conducted to determine the availability of hand washing facilities, hand washing knowledge and practices among public primary schools in Kintampo Municipality.

Methods: A cross sectional survey was carried out among 300 children and 10 headmasters in 10 selected schools. Data were collected using questionnaires and observation checklist regarding socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of hand washing, hand washing practices and availability of hand washing facilities in the selected schools.

Results: All the children indicated that it was important to wash their hands with water and soap. About (37.67%) washed their hands in order to prevent diseases, 53.33% had never been educated on how to wash their hands. Only 23.33% of the children demonstrated correctly on how to wash hands, a little over 15% washed their hands under clean running water whiles 23.33% wipe their hands using handkerchiefs. Forty-three percent indicated after visiting toilet as necessary to wash hands whiles 42.33% cited lack of water as the barrier to hand washing. About 39.88% always washed their hands with soap after using the toilet; about 60% of the schools had hand washing points. Only 30% of the schools have clean running water.

Conclusions: There is the need for effective hand washing education in the schools to help improve hand washing knowledge and practices. Hand washing facilities in the schools were found to be inadequate.


Keywords


Hand washing, Facilities, Public schools, Children, Kintampo

Full Text:

PDF

References


USAID. Hygiene Improvement Project (HIP) – Tippy- Tap: A simple low-cost technology for hand washing when water is scarce.

Ryan MA, Christian RS, Wohlrabe J. Hand-washing and respiratory illness among young adults in military training. Am J Prev Med. 21: 2001;79-83.

Majorin F, Freeman MC, Barnard S, Routray P, Boison S, Clasen T. Child Faeces Disposal Practices in Rural Orissa: A cross Sectional Study. PLoS One. 2014 20;9(2):e89551.

UNICEF. Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed Progress Report 2013. Published September 2013. Accessed 3 February, 2017.

JMP Hand washing dataset. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for water supply and sanitation. Accessed 3 January 2018.

UNICEF. Simple act of Hand washing with soap could Save Thousands Lives. Retrievd online at https://www.unicef.org/ghana/media_10778.html. Accessed 3 January 2018.

Behailu B, Hailu G, Dawit C, Abebech A, Amelmal K, Engida K, et al. Assessment of Hand Washing Practice and it’s Associated Factors among FirstCycle Primary School Children in Arba Minch Town, Ethiopia. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2016 ;3(10):2958-66.

Curtis V, Cairncross S. Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003;3:275–81.

Mohammed G, Nihar D, Bashayer A, Hiba I, Rasha A, Zaid A.Knowledge and Practice of Personal Hygiene among Primary School Students in Sharjah-UAE. J Health Sci. 2016;6(5):67-73.

Vivas A, Gelaye B, Aboset N, Kumie A, Berhane Y, Williams MA. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) of Hygiene among School Children in Angolela, Ethiopia. J Prev Med Hyg. 2010;51(2): 3–9.

Water and Sanitation Program Can hygiene be cool and fun: Insights from School Children in Senegal. Available at: http://www.comminit.com/en/node/264152/38. Accessed 3 January 2018.

Steiner-Asiedu M, Van-Ess SE, Papoe M, Setorglo J, Asiedu DK, Anderson AK. Hand Washing Practices among School Children in Ghana. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences 3(4): 293-300,2011.

Oswald WE, Hunter GC, Lescano AG, Cabrera L, Leontsini E, Pan WK, et al. Direct observation of hygiene in a Peruvian shantytown: not enough hand washing and too little water. Trop Med Int Health. 2008;13:1421–8.

O’Loughlin R. Follow-up of a low cost latrine promotion programme in one district of Amhara, Ethiopia: characteristics of early adopters and non-adopters. Tropical Med Int Health. 2006;11:1406–15.

Alyssa V, Bizu G, Nigusu A, Abera K, Yemane B, Michelle A. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) of Hygiene among School Children in Angolela, Ethiopia. J Prev Med Hyg. 2010;51(2):73–9.

Eseoghene DI, Igbudu U.Availability and Utilization of Hand washing Facilities among Primary school Pupils in Ughelli North L.G.A of Delta state. Academic Research International. 2013. www.savap.org.pk

Ghana Education Service (School Health Education programme unit). Wash in schools (wins). Annual report, December, 2012.

Ghana Statistical Service. 2010 Population and Hosing Census, District analytical report, Ghana

Mariwah S, Hampshire K, Kasim A. The impact of gender and physical environment on the handwashing behaviour of university students in Ghana. Tropical Med International Health. 2012;17(4):447–54.

Chittleborough CR, Alexander LN, Elaine B, Bell S, Campbell R. Factors influencing hand washing behaviour in primary schools: process evaluation within a randomized controlled trial. Health Educ Res. 2012;27(6):1055-68.

Bloomfield SF, Nath KJ. Use of ash and mud for hand washing in low income communities International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene (IFH). 2009. http://www.ifh-homehygiene.org on Accessed 3 January 2018.

Gawai PP, Taware SA, Chatterjee SA, Thakur HP. A cross sectional descriptive study of hand washing knowledge and practices among primary school children in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2016;3(10):2958-66.

UNICEF. Available from http://unicef.in/Story/129/ Fast-Facts-And-Figures-About-Handwashing. Accessed on 11 April 2016.

Huang C, Wenjun M, Stack S. The Hygienic Efficacy of Different Hand-Drying Methods: A Review of the Evidence, Mayo Clin Proc. 2012;87(8):791-8.

Xuan LT, Hoat LN. Handwashing among schoolchildren in an ethnically diverse population in northern rural Vietnam. Glob Health Action. 2013;6:18869

Centre for Disease Control-CDC (2007). Guidelines for Infection Control. USA: Centre for Disease Control.

Pati, SS, Kadam, AS, Chauhan S. Hand hygiene behavior among urban slum childrenand their care takers in Odisha, India. J prev med hyg. 2014;55:65-8.

Live Earth. How to make a tippy-tap handwashing device. Live Earth; 2009. Available at: http://liveearth.org/en/liveearthblog/how-to-make-a-tippy-tap-hand-washing-device. Accessed 3March 2018.

Zhanga C, Mosab AJ, Hayward AS, Matthews SA. Promoting clean hands among children in Uganda: a schoolbased intervention using ‘tippy-taps. Public Health. 2013;127(6):586–9.