DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20181223

Prevalence and factors affecting tobacco use among urban adolescents in Bhilai city, central India

Snehamayee Nayak, Abhisek Mishra

Abstract


Background: Most tobacco users initiate their smoking habit quite young, upto 10 yrs of age. The physiological and psychological changes in this phase of life with an inquisitiveness to become autonomous enhance their vulnerability for addiction, tobacco use and dependency. its use during adolescence are likely to continue the use into adulthood and contribute to the 90 per cent of premature deaths among tobacco users. In this context the prevalence, patterns and correlates of tobacco use are studied among adolescent of urban slums of Bhilai city, Chhattisgarh India.

Methods: Total 172 adolescents within the age group of 10-19 yrs, across 30 slums of Bhilai city are taken by cluster random sampling. They have been administered a self-administered questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments.

Results: Of the 172 study respondents, the overall lifetime prevalence of tobacco use is 25 per cent (18% boys and 7% girls). Among users category the prevalence of tobacco use increased from 2.3 per cent at 10-14 yrs to 58.2 per cent at 18-19 yr. The mean age of onset of tobacco use was 14.8±3.1 yr. The prevalence is higher among subjects belong to lower socio-economic status and those with part-time jobs. Tobacco users had significantly higher rates of use of alcohol (90%) than tobacco non users (7.8%). They are having any form of stress in family (55% vs. 31.5%), more severe psychological distress (65 vs. 25.6%) and a sense of hopelessness (40 vs. 19%).

Conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco use in adolescents reported in this study is relatively higher than those reported from other Indian States. However, it correlates with multiple socio-demographic and familial predicting factors suggesting a need to promote health and holistic interventions to prevent adolescent tobacco use.


Keywords


Addiction, Adolescent, Global youth tobacco survey, Health promotion

Full Text:

PDF

References


Reddy KS, Gupta PC, editors. Report of tobacco control in India. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; 2004.

Jha P, Chaloupka FJ, eds. Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control. Washington DC: The World Bank; 1999.

Smoking and Adolescent. National institute on drug abuse. Available at: https://www.drugabuse.gov/ publications/research-reports/tobacco/smoking-adolescence. Accessed on 7 October 2017.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2004.

Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2012. Available at: http://www.surgeongeneral. gov/library/reports/preventing-youth-tobacco-use/full-report.pdf. Accessed on 03 August 2017.

Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Miech RA, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. Monitoring the future national results on drug use: 1975-2013: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan; 2014.

Available at: http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-Common/World-Population.html. Accessed on 04 August 2017.

Chaudhry K, Prabhakar AK, Prabhakaran PS, Prasad A, Singh K, Singh A. Prevalence of tobacco use in Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh In India. New Delhi: Indian Council of Medical Research; 2001.

Gajalakshmi V, Kanimozhi CV. A survey of 24,000 students aged 13-15 years in India: Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2006 and 2009. Tob Use Insights. 2010;3:23–31.

Sounding the smoke alaram. The hindu. 28th January, 2016. Available at: http://www.thehindu. com/todays-paper/tp-opinion/Sounding-the-smoke-alarm/article14024145. Accessed on 12 July 2017.

Jayakrishnan R, Geetha S, Binukumar B, Sreekumar, Lekshmi K. Self-reported tobacco use, knowledge on tobacco legislation and tobacco hazards among adolescents in rural Kerala State. Indian J Dent Res. 2011;22:195–9.

Philip PM, Neetu AP, Binukumar B, Satheesan B. Evaluation of a tobacco control programme to reduce tobacco use among school children in Kerala. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:3455–9.

Jayakrishnan R, Geetha S, Binukumar B, Sreekumar, Lekshmi K. Self-reported tobacco use, knowledge on tobacco legislation and tobacco hazards among adolescents in rural Kerala State. Indian J Dent Res. 2011;22:195-9.

Bhojani UM, Chander SJ, Devadasan N. Tobacco use and related factors among pre-university students in a college in Bangalore, India. Natl Med J India. 2009;22:294-7.

Pradeepkumar AS, Mohan S, Gopalakrishnan P, Sarma PS, Thankappan KR, Nichter M. Tobacco use in Kerala: findings from three recent studies. Natl Med J India. 2005;18:148–53.

Kokkevi A, Richardson C, Florescu S, Kuzman M, Stergar E. Psychosocial correlates of substance use in adolescence: a cross-national study in six European countries. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;86:67–74.

Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Miech RA, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. Monitoring the future national results on drug use: 1975-2013: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan; 2014.

Fielding JE. Smoking and women: tragedy of the majority. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:1343–5.

Sinha DN, Gupta PC, Pednekar MS. Tobacco use among students in the eight North-Eastern states of India. Indian J Cancer. 2003;40:43–59.

Pednekar MS, Gupta PC. Tobacco use among school students in Goa, India. Indian J Public Health. 2004;48:147–52.

Kandel DB, Kiros GE, Schaffran C, Hu MC. Racial/ethnic differences in cigarette smoking initiation and progression to daily smoking: a multilevel analysis. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:128–35.

Mohanan P, Swain S, Sanah N, Sharma V, Ghosh D. A study on the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and sexual behaviour among adolescents in urban areas of the Udupi District, Karnataka, India. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2014;14:104–12.

Fuemmeler BF, Kollins SH, McClernon FJ. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms predict nicotine dependence and progression to regular smoking from adolescence to young adulthood. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007;32:1203–13.

Couwenbergh C, van den Brink W, Zwart K, Vreugdenhil C, van Wijngaarden-Cremers P, van der Gaag RJ. Comorbid psychopathology in adolescents and young adults treated for substance use disorders: a review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;15:319–28.

WHO ASSIST Working Group. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): development, reliability and feasibility. Addiction. 2002;97:1183–94.

Kessler RC, Andrews G, Colpe LJ, Hiripi E, Mroczek DK, Normand SL, et al. Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychological Med. 2002;32:956-9.

Andrews G, Slade T. Interpreting scores on the Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) Aust N Z J Public Health. 2001;25:494–7.

Cigarettes and other Tobacco products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 (COTPA) No. 34. 2003.

Jaisoorya TS, Beena KV, Beena M, Jose DC, Ellangovan K, Thennarasu K, et al. Prevalence & correlates of tobacco use among adolescents in Kerala, India. Indian J Med Res. 2016;144(5):704-11.

Lopez-Quintero C, Pérez de los Cobos J, Hasin DS, Okuda M, Wang S, Grant BF, et al. Probability and predictors of transition from first use to dependence on nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine: results of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;115:120–30.

Lee CY, Winters KC, Wall MM. Trajectories of substance use disorders in youth: identifying and predicting group memberships. J Child Adolesc Subst Abuse. 2010;19:135-57.

Zorick T. Psychiatric comorbidities in adolescent substance use disorders. In: Rosner R, editor. Clinical handbook of adolescent addiction. Oxford: John Wiley and Sons; 2013.

Hughes JR. Smoking and suicide: a brief overview. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;98:169–78.